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Neuroprotective effects of various doses of topiramate against methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in isolated rat amygdala: the possible role of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.

Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse damages brain cells. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported previously, but its exact mechanism of action still remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo role of various doses of TPM in the protection of rat amygdala cells against methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Seventy adult male rats were divided into seven groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg), respectively, for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were concurrently treated with MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM (10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 mg/kg), respectively, for 21 days. elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to assess motor activity disturbances. In addition, oxidative, antioxidantand inflammatory factors and CREB, Ak1, CAMK4, MAPK3, PKA, BDNF, and c FOS gene levels were measured by RT-PCR, and also, CREB and BDNF protein levels were measured by WB in isolated amygdalae. MPH significantly disturbed motor activity and TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) neutralized its effects. MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial GSSG levels and IL-1β and TNF-α level and CAMK4 gene expression in isolated amygdala cells. In contrast, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and CREB, BDNF Ak1, MAPK3, PKA, BDNF, and c FOS expression significantly decreased. The various doses of TPM attenuated these effects of MPH. It seems that TPM can be used as a neuroprotective agent and is a good candidate against MPH-induced neurodegeneration.

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Growth modulation of hepatocytes and rat liver epithelial cells (WB-F344) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

Modulation of DNA synthesis by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes and in rat liver epithelial cells (WB-F344) to develop models for studies on the interactions between the activated Ah receptor and cellular growth control. In hepatocytes TCDD either positively or negatively modulated EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. In the presence of ethinylestradiol 10(-12) M TCDD moderately increased EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis (approximately 30%). In contrast, 10(-9) M TCDD in the absence of ethinylestradiol decreased DNA synthesis (approximately 30%). Analysis of variance revealed that the TCDD effects were highly significant. The response of 'early genes' of the jun/fos family and the corresponding proteins was also studied under these two conditions. In agreement with the DNA synthesis data, the level of c-Jun was increased or decreased in nuclear extracts. Furthermore, DNA binding of Jun/Fos proteins, including c-Jun and Fra-1, was decreased under conditions of mitoinhibition, while the level of Fra-1 in nuclear extracts was increased. In WB-F344 cells TCDD treatment for 44 h increased DNA synthesis 2- to 3-fold in comparison with controls, based on measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA or on determining the nuclear labeling index with bromodeoxyuridine. This effect is probably due to inhibition of high density growth arrest by TCDD. The proposed cellular models may be useful to elucidate the interactions between the activated Ah receptor and signaling pathways of growth homeostasis.

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Transforming growth factor beta 1 promotes spontaneous transformation of cultured rat liver epithelial cells.

The neoplastic transformation of cultured rat liver epithelial cells by various means has consistently been associated with the development of resistance to the mito-inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), suggesting that such phenotype plays a mechanistic role during the transformation of these cells. We have studied the induction of the "TGF-beta-resistant" phenotype in a clonal strain of early passage WB-F344 normal cultured rat liver epithelial cells, the proliferation of which was markedly inhibited by TGF-beta. The control WB cells in continuous culture slowly developed TGF-beta resistance. However, when the same cells were exposed to step-wise increases of TGF-beta concentration in their culture medium, the development of TGF-beta resistance was accelerated. Cells which had been grown in medium containing 1 ng/ml TGF-beta developed colony-forming capacity in soft agar containing epidermal growth factor. Cells which were grown in media containing 5 and 10 ng/ml TGF-beta demonstrated a low level of colony-forming efficiency in soft agar medium without added epidermal growth factor and tumorigenicity in isogeneic rats. These TGF-beta-resistant cells also exhibited progressively increasing levels of expression of the c-fos and and myc mRNA, and increased resistance to the cytotoxicity of Adriamycin and melphalan. The latter phenomenon was accompanied by an increase in the mdr-1 mRNA expression, cellular glutathione level, and glutathione S-transferase activity. The results suggest that chronic exposure to high concentration of TGF-beta promotes the spontaneous neoplastic transformation of cultured rat liver epithelial cells, and that this process may represent one of the mechanisms of cellular adaptation for induction of the multidrug-resistant phenotype during the carcinogenesis of epithelial cells.

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