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Simplified estimation of binding parameters based on image-derived reference tissue models for dopamine transporter bindings in non-human primates using [18F]FE-PE2I and PET.

The aim of this study on dopamine transporter binding by [18F]FE-PE2I and PET was to describe an image-derived approach using reference tissue models: the Logan DVR approach and simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), the features of which were simple to operate and precise in the measurements. Using the approach, the authors sought to obtain binding images and parameters. [18F]FE-PE2I and dynamic PET as well as an MRI was performed on three rhesus monkeys, and metabolite corrected arterial plasma inputs were obtained. After co-registering of PET to MR images, both image sets were resliced. The time-activity curve of the cerebellum was used as indirect input, and binding parametric images were computed voxel-by-voxel. Voxel-wise linear calculations were used for the Logan DVR approach, and nonlinear least squares fittings for the SRTM. To determine the best linear regression in the Logan DVR approach, the distribution volume ratio was obtained using the optimal starting frame analysis. The obtained binding parameters were compared with those obtained by the other independent ROI-based numerical approaches: two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan DVR approach and SRTM using PMOD software. Binding potentials (BP) obtained by the present approach agreed well with those obtained by ROI-based numerical approaches, although reference tissue models tended to underestimate the BP value than 2TCM. Image-derived Logan approach provided a low-noise image, the computation time was short, and the error in the optimal starting frame analysis was small. The present approach provides a high-quality binding parametric image and reliable parameter value easily.

2882 related Products with: Simplified estimation of binding parameters based on image-derived reference tissue models for dopamine transporter bindings in non-human primates using [18F]FE-PE2I and PET.

Human normal bone and ost Human breast invasive duc Human breast invasive duc Breast invasive ductal ca Rat Anti-Human Dopamine T Rabbit Anti-Human Dopamin Rabbit Anti-Human Dopamin ELISA kit CLGI,Collagenas Goat Anti-Human Tissue Fa Goat Anti-Human Vitamin D Multiple organ tumor tiss Multiple organ tumor tiss

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IR and kinetic study of sewage sludge combustion at different oxygen concentrations.

Thermal degradation of sewage sludge disposal is attracting more attention due to the increase in municipal wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of the thermochemical processes of sewage sludge at different oxygen concentrations was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) study. The oxygen concentrations were varied systematically from 0 to 20%, representing heating process from pyrolysis to full combustion. The evolutions of surface functional groups in these processes were also investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectra (DRIFT), which helped to understand the reaction mechanism during the thermal degradation, especially when the reaction conditions were different. The heating process was divided into four stages, dehydration (below 200 °C), devolatilization (200-400 °C), char combustion (above 400 °C), and secondary devolatilization (above 650 °C). Reaction mechanism and kinetic model was proposed based on the stages of heating process. Oxygen concentration was presented explicitly in the reactions and kinetic equations. The model was then developed for the heating processes at different oxygen concentrations, followed by fittings of kinetic parameters. Some of the parameters in the model were fixed as constants to minimize the number of variations. The fitted model agreed well with the TG curves at different oxygen concentrations and could illustrate the evolution of intermediates and products during the heating process. The developed kinetic model could be further applied for the modeling of sewage sludge pellets combustion considering oxygen diffusion process.

2541 related Products with: IR and kinetic study of sewage sludge combustion at different oxygen concentrations.

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Scleral Lens Clearance Assessment with Biomicroscopy and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

It is important to be able to accurately estimate the central corneal clearance when fitting scleral contact lenses. Tools available have intrinsic biases due to the angle of viewing, and therefore an idea of the amount of error in estimation will benefit the fitter.

1683 related Products with: Scleral Lens Clearance Assessment with Biomicroscopy and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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Hearing aids: indications, technology, adaptation, and quality control.

Hearing loss can be caused by a number of different pathological conditions. Some of them can be successfully treated, mainly by surgery, depending on the individual's disease process. However, the treatment of chronic sensorineural hearing loss with damaged cochlear structures usually needs hearing rehabilitation by means of technical amplification. During the last two decades tremendous improvements in hearing aid technology led to a higher quality of the hearing rehabilitation process. For example, due to sophisticated signal processing acoustic feedback could be reduced and hence open fitting options are available even for more subjects with higher degrees of hearing loss. In particular for high-frequency hearing loss, the use of open fitting is an option. Both the users' acceptance and the perceived sound quality were significantly increased by open fittings. However, we are still faced with a low level of readiness in many hearing impaired subjects to accept acoustic amplification. Since ENT specialists play a key-role in hearing aid provision, they should promote early hearing aid rehabilitation and include this in the counselling even in subjects with mild and moderate hearing loss. Recent investigations demonstrated the benefit of early hearing aid use in this group of patients since this may help to reduce subsequent damages as auditory deprivation, social isolation, development of dementia, and cognitive decline. For subjects with tinnitus, hearing aids may also support masking by environmental sounds and enhance cortical inhibition. The present paper describes the latest developments of hearing aid technology and the current state of the art for amplification modalities. Implications for both hearing aid indication and provision are discussed.

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Background electrolytes and pH effects on selenate adsorption using iron-impregnated granular activated carbon and surface binding mechanisms.

Iron-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) has been shown effective for selenite adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions, but similar effectiveness was not observed with selenate. This study examined the effects of background electrolytes and pH on selenate adsorption on to Fe-GAC, and surface bindings to elucidate the selenate adsorption mechanisms. The decrease magnitude of selenate adsorption capacity under three background electrolytes followed the order: LiCl > NaCl > KCl, as ionic strength increased from 0.01 to 0.1 M. Larger adsorption capacity differences among the three electrolytes were observed under the higher ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 M) than those under 0.01 M. Multiplet peak fittings of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra for O1s and Fe2p3/2 indicated the presence of iron (III) on adsorbent surface. pH variations during the adsorbent preparation within 3-8 in NaCl solutions did not cause appreciable changes in the iron redox state and composition. Raman spectra showed the formation of both monodentate and bidentate inner sphere complexes under pHs <7 and a mixture of outer sphere and inner sphere complexes at pH 8. These results explained the lower selenate adsorption under alkaline conditions. Mechanisms for monodentate and bidentate formations and a stable six-member ring structure were proposed. Two strategies were recommended for modifying Fe-GAC preparation procedure to enhance the selenate adsorption: (1) mixed-metal oxide coatings to increase the point of zero charge (pHzpc); and (2) ferrous iron coating to initially reduce selenate followed by selenite adsorption.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5

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A new method to analyse the effect of multifocal contact lenses on visual function.

Presbyopic contact lens (CL) fittings produce simultaneous vision, providing different retinal images that reduce visual quality and wearers' satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to isolate the multifocality effect of different CL options to manage presbyopia, analysing the impact on binocular visual acuity (VA), stereopsis and contrast sensitivity (CS) and determining the effect of the use of a yellow filter (YF) on visual function.

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Relaxivity of Ferumoxytol at 1.5 T and 3.0 T.

The aim of this study was to determine the relaxation properties of ferumoxytol, an off-label alternative to gadolinium-based contrast agents, under physiological conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T.

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Tin chemical shift anisotropy in tin dioxide: On ambiguity of CSA asymmetry derived from MAS spectra.

Two different axial symmetries of the 119Sn chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in tin dioxide with the asymmetry parameter (η) of 0 and 0.27 were reported previously based on the analysis of MAS NMR spectra. By analyzing the static powder pattern, we show that the 119Sn CSA is axially symmetric. A nearly axial symmetry and the principal axis system of the 119Sn chemical shift tensor in SnO2 were deduced from periodic scalar-relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of NMR parameters. The implications of fast small-angle motions on CSA parameters were also considered, which could potentially lead to a CSA symmetry in disagreement with a crystal symmetry. Our analysis of experimental spectra using spectral simulations and iterative fittings showed that MAS spectra recorded at relatively high frequencies do not show sufficiently distinct features in order to distinguish CSAs with η ≈ 0 and η ≈ 0.4. The example of SnO2 shows that both the MAS lineshape and spinning sideband analyses may overestimate the η value by as much as ∼0.3 and ∼0.4, respectively. The results confirm that a static powder pattern must be analysed in order to improve the accuracy of the CSA asymmetry measurements. The measurements on SnO2 nanoparticles showed that the asymmetry parameter of the 119Sn CSA increases for nm-sized particles with a larger surface area compared to μm-sized particles. The increase of the η value for tin atoms near the surface in SnO2 was also confirmed by DFT calculations.

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Analytical hessian fitting schemes for efficient determination of force-constant parameters in molecular mechanics.

Building upon our recently developed partial Hessian fitting (PHF) method (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2016, 37, 2349), we formulated and implemented two other rapid force-field parameterization schemes called full Hessian fitting (FHF) and internal Hessian fitting (IHF), and comparisons were made among these three parameterization schemes to assess their performance. FHF minimizes deviation between the Hessian matrices in Cartesian coordinates computed by quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM), to determine the best possible MM force-constant parameters. While PHF requires step-by-step fittings of 3 × 3 partial Hessian matrices, FHF compares the lower triangular part of the QM and MM Hessian matrices, which allows simultaneous determination of all force-constant parameters. In addition to this simple FHF scheme, IHF was developed such that it considers the Hessian matrices in redundant internal coordinates, where all possible internal coordinates that arise from the user-defined interatomic connectivity are utilized. The results show that IHF performs best overall, followed by PHF and then FHF. Python-based programing codes were developed to automate various tedious steps involved in the parameterization processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Microbial assessment of dental unit waterlines in an institutional setup in Karnataka, South India.

Biofilms in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), suction hoses, and fittings are a potentially significant source of cross-contamination posing significant health risk as these may come into contact with patients during treatment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to identify the spectrum of bacterial flora colonizing the DUWLs and to detect pathogenic microorganisms present in such an environmental niche.

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