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Pulmonary arterial enlargement predicts long-term survival in COPD patients.

Pulmonary artery enlargement (PAE) is associated with exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and with survival in moderate to severe patients. The potential role of PAE in survival prediction has not been compared with other clinical and physiological prognostic markers.

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[The characteristic of a smoker at the elderly age].

Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for diseases which are not infectious (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, COPD, cancer) in both young and elderly people. In Poland 33.5% of men (5.2 million) and 21% of women (3.5 million), including 27% (8.7 million) of adult Poles still smoke every day. A tobacco smoker at his middle age loses on average almost 22 years of life, people at the age of 70 or more years on average 8 years. Therefore, the promotion of healthy behaviour in Poland, including giving up smoking, was included in the health programmes within the European Union and the National Health Programme for the years 2016-2020. The aim of the study was to present the characteristics of smoking among elderly people.

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Low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and long-term prognosis of COPD: a prospective cohort study.

Role and importance of vitamin D deficiency in long-term prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) still remains undetermined. We tested the hypothesis that among individuals with COPD, those with low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have a poorer prognosis compared to those with normal concentrations. We studied 35,153 individuals from the general population aged 20-100 years with 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements and spirometry, the Copenhagen City Heart Study [median follow-up 21 years (range 13 days-36 years)] and the Copenhagen General Population Study [7.1 years (3 days-13 years)]. Spirometric COPD (n = 5178; 15% of all) was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.70 in individuals without asthma and clinical COPD (n = 2033; 6%) as FEV/FVC < 0.70 and FEV < 80% of predicted in ever-smokers aged > 40 years without asthma and with cumulative tobacco consumption ≥ 10 pack-years. In spirometric COPD, median age at death in years was 70.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.4-71.2) for individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 12.5 nmol/L and 80.3 (74.4-83.4) for those with ≥ 50 nmol/L. In clinical COPD, corresponding values were 69.0 (63.3-70.9) and 76.2 (73.8-78.0). In spirometric COPD, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 12.5 nmol/L versus those with ≥ 50 nmol/L were 1.35 (95% CI 1.09-1.67) for all-cause mortality, 1.63 (1.00-2.64) for respiratory mortality, 1.14 (0.76-1.70) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.37 (0.90-2.06) for cancer mortality, and 1.61 (1.04-2.49) for other mortality. In clinical COPD, corresponding values were 1.39 (1.07-1.82), 1.57 (0.91-2.72), 0.88 (0.51-1.53), 1.63 (0.99-2.67), and 2.00 (1.12-3.56). Low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were associated with an increased risk of death in individuals with COPD. No clear pattern of association could be observed for cause of death; however, there may be an increased risk of respiratory, cancer, and other mortality. It is likely that low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a marker of poor health in COPD.

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Smoking, Systemic Inflammation, and Airflow Limitation: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis of 98 085 Individuals from the General Population.

Smoking is associated with systemic and local inflammation in the lungs. Furthermore, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is often caused by smoking, there is often systemic inflammation that is linked to lung function impairment. However, the causal pathways linking smoking, systemic inflammation, and airflow limitation are still unknown. We tested whether higher tobacco consumption is associated with higher systemic inflammation, observationally and genetically and whether genetically higher systemic inflammation is associated with airflow limitation.

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Characteristics and Predictive Value of PD-L1 Status in Real-World Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has emerged as an effective treatment for lung cancer patients. It is important to evaluate the practicality of PD-L1 testing in real-world practice. A total of 211 non-small cell lung cancer patients were enrolled to detect 5 driver mutations and PD-L1 status (22C3 and SP263 assays) and to evaluate the characteristics of PD-L1 expression and its predictive value of immunotherapy. The PD-L1 positive (≥1%) and strong positive (≥50%) rate by SP263 assay was 27.0% and 12.8%. The concordance rates between 2 PD-L1 assays while using 1%, 10%, 25%, and 50% positive tumor cells as the cutoffs were 76.8%, 81.5%, 90.5%, and 94.3%, respectively. Smokers and patients without known actionable driver mutation were more likely to present strong positive PD-L1 [adjusted hazard ratio, 5.00 (95% confidence interval-CI, 1.60-15.64); P=0.006 and 3.59 (95% CI, 1.25-10.33); P=0.018, respectively]. Higher levels of smoking were associated with higher PD-L1 expressions. None of the EGFR, ALK, HER2, or BRAF-mutant nonsmokers displayed strong positive PD-L1 expression by SP263 assay. Among patients undergoing PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors therapy, high PD-L1 expression by SP263 was associated with a longer progression-free survival [adjusted hazard ratio, 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03-0.71); P=0.017]. In conclusion, our results suggest that PD-L1 status remains an important predictor of immunotherapy efficacy. The concordance between 22C3 and SP263 assays was greater at a higher cutoff level of positivity. Patients without known actionable driver mutation, along with smokers, particularly those having high smoking pack-years, were more likely to have strong PD-L1 expression.

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Asthma-COPD Overlap Phenotypes and Smoking :Comparative features of asthma in smoking or non-smoking patients with an incomplete reversibility of airway obstruction.

The development of COPD features, such as an incomplete reversibility of airway obstruction (IRAO), in smoking or non-smoking asthmatic patients, a condition often named Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO), has been recognized for decades. However, there is a need to know more about the sub-phenotypes of this condition according to smoking. This study aimed at comparing the clinical, physiological and inflammatory features of smoking and non-smoking asthmatic patients exhibiting IRAO. In this cross-sectional study, patients with an IRAO with (ACO, ≥20 pack-years) or without (NS-IRAO, <5 pack-years) significant smoking history completed questionnaires about asthma control (ACQ, score 0-6, 6 = better score) and quality of life (AQLQ, score 1-7, 1 = better score) and performed expiratory flows, lung volume and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity measurements. Blood sampling and induced sputum were obtained for systemic and lower airway inflammation assessment. A total of 115 asthmatic patients were included (75 ACO: age 61 ± 10 years, 60% women and 40 NS-IRAO: age 64 ± 9 years, 38% women). ACO patients had worse asthma control scores (1.8 ± 0.9 vs 1.4 ± 0.9, P = 0.02) and poorer asthma quality of life (5.3 ± 1.0 vs 5.9 ± 1.0, P = 0.003). In addition, ACO had higher residual volume (145 ± 45 vs 121 ± 29% predicted, P = 0.008) and a lower carbon monoxide diffusing capacity corrected for alveolar volume (90 ± 22 vs 108 ± 20% predicted, P = 0.0008). No significant differences were observed in systemic or lower airway inflammation. In conclusion, in smokers and non-smokers, the presence of IRAO in asthmatics is associated with different phenotypes that reflect the addition of smoking-induced changes to asthma physiopathology.

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Focus Groups and In-depth Interviews to Guide the Development of Lung Cancer Screening Informational Materials.

Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the USA. In 2013, new guidelines issued by the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography among a selected group of high-risk individuals. Specifically, lung cancer screening is recommended for heavy smokers between the ages of 55 to 79, with at least 30 pack-year smoking exposure. Former smokers who meet these guidelines and stopped smoking ≤ 15 years ago are also eligible. There is a need to promote lung cancer screening to increase early diagnosis rates and treatment options, thereby decreasing disease-specific mortality. This study was conducted to refine educational materials used to inform eligible high-risk individuals about the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening. Focus groups (n = 16) and in-depth telephone interviews (n = 5) were conducted among screening-eligible participants recruited from western New York. Main themes that emerged from the discussions included cost of obtaining the exam, eligibility criteria/information about the exam, apprehension regarding results, and an increased desire for discussions with their physician to learn more about the screening. The information gained from this study is vital to understanding concerns held by current and former smokers regarding lung cancer screening, as well as critical to determining which information is most valuable for decreasing barriers and correcting misperceptions about the lung cancer screening exam.

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Composite resection of the left upper lobe and superior segment (S6) of the lower lobe for lung cancer with a mediastinal lingular and basal pulmonary artery.

Preoperative evaluation and awareness of anatomical variations in the pulmonary vessel is essential for a secure pulmonary resection. We herein present a patient who underwent complex pulmonary resection for lung cancer with a mediastinal lingular and basal pulmonary artery that had been detected by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography.

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A Validated Clinical Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Smokers of All Ages and Exposure Types: A HUNT Study.

Lung cancer causes >1·6 million deaths annually, with early diagnosis being paramount to effective treatment. Here we present a validated risk assessment model for lung cancer screening. The prospective HUNT2 population study in Norway examined 65,237 people aged >20years in 1995-97. After a median of 15·2years, 583 lung cancer cases had been diagnosed; 552 (94·7%) ever-smokers and 31 (5·3%) never-smokers. We performed multivariable analyses of 36 candidate risk predictors, using multiple imputation of missing data and backwards feature selection with Cox regression. The resulting model was validated in an independent Norwegian prospective dataset of 45,341 ever-smokers, in which 675 lung cancers had been diagnosed after a median follow-up of 11·6years. Our final HUNT Lung Cancer Model included age, pack-years, smoking intensity, years since smoking cessation, body mass index, daily cough, and hours of daily indoors exposure to smoke. External validation showed a 0·879 concordance index (95% CI [0·866-0·891]) with an area under the curve of 0·87 (95% CI [0·85-0·89]) within 6years. Only 22% of ever-smokers would need screening to identify 81·85% of all lung cancers within 6years. Our model of seven variables is simple, accurate, and useful for screening selection.

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Low-to-Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Respiratory Health in American Indian Communities.

Exposure to inorganic arsenic, through drinking naturally-contaminated water, is an established cause of lung cancer. Evidence on the impact of arsenic exposure on lung function, however, is less conclusive. The evidence available, mostly from populations exposed to water arsenic levels >100 μg/L, suggests that arsenic exposure is associated with lower lung function. Prospective studies and studies examining low-to-moderate levels of water arsenic exposure (<50 μg/L) the level relevant for U.S. populations, are very limited.

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