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#27685445   2016/09/29 Save this To Up

FOXO3a and the MAPK p38 are activated by cetuximab to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation and their expression predicts cetuximab efficacy in colorectal cancer.

Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR used for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), is ineffective in many patients. The aim of this study was to identify the signalling pathways activated by cetuximab in CRC cells and define new biomarker of response.

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#21911455   2011/11/01 Save this To Up

FOXO3a-Dependent Mechanism of E1A-Induced Chemosensitization.

Gene therapy trials in human breast, ovarian, and head and neck tumors indicate that adenovirus E1A can sensitize cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Resistance to paclitaxel has been reported to occur in cells expressing low levels of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a. In this article, we report that FOXO3a is critical for E1A-mediated chemosensitization to paclitaxel. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FOXO3a abolished E1A-induced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Mechanistic investigations indicated that E1A indirectly stabilized FOXO3a by acting at an intermediate step to inhibit a ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway involving the E3 ligase βTrCP and the FOXO3a inhibitory kinase IKKβ. E1A derepressed this inhibitory pathway by stimulating expression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/C protein phosphatases, which by binding to the TGF-β-activated kinase TAK1, inhibited its ability to activate IKKβ and, thereby, to suppress βTrCP-mediated degradation of FOXO3a. Thus, by stimulating PP2A/C expression, E1A triggers a signaling cascade that stabilizes FOXO3a and mediates chemosensitization. Our findings provide a leap forward in understanding paclitaxel chemosensitization by E1A, and offer a mechanistic rational to apply E1A gene therapy as an adjuvant for improving therapeutic outcomes in patients receiving paclitaxel treatment.

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#17909003   2007/10/02 Save this To Up

Trastuzumab-resistant HER2-driven breast cancer cells are sensitive to epigallocatechin-3 gallate.

Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor family member HER2 is found in approximately 30% of breast cancers and is a target for immunotherapy. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2, is cytostatic when added alone and highly successful in clinical settings when used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Unfortunately, HER2 tumors in patients develop resistance to trastuzumab or metastasize to the brain, which is inaccessible to antibody therapy. Previously, we showed that the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) inhibits growth and transformed phenotype of Her-2/neu-driven mouse mammary tumor cells. The different modes of action of EGCG and trastuzumab led us to hypothesize that EGCG will inhibit HER2-driven breast cancer cells resistant to trastuzumab. We studied trastuzumab-resistant BT474 human breast cancer cells, isolated by chronic trastuzumab exposure, and JIMT-1 breast cancer cells, derived from a pleural effusion in a patient who displayed clinical resistance to trastuzumab therapy. EGCG treatment caused a dose-dependent decrease in growth and cellular ATP production, and apoptosis at high concentrations. Akt activity was suppressed by EGCG leading to the induction of FOXO3a and target cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 levels. Thus, EGCG in combination with trastuzumab may provide a novel strategy for treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers, given that EGCG can cross the blood-brain barrier.

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#17051618   2006/11/13 Save this To Up

The negative regulators Foxj1 and Foxo3a are up-regulated by a peptide that inhibits systemic lupus erythematosus-associated T cell responses.

A peptide (hCDR1) based on the complementarity determining region-1 of an anti-DNA antibody ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in induced and spontaneous lupus models. Our objectives were to determine the effects of hCDR1 on TCR signaling and on its negative regulators, Foxj1 and Foxo3a. BALB/c mice were immunized with the SLE-inducing anti-DNA antibody, designated 16/6Id, and treated with hCDR1. hCDR1 treatment specifically inhibited IFN-gamma secretion by T cells in association with down-regulated T-bet expression and NF-kappaB activation; however, GATA-3 expression was not affected. Furthermore, TCR signaling (ZAP-70 phosphorylation) was inhibited, and the mRNA expression of the two modulators of Th1 activation, Foxj1 and Foxo3a, was significantly up-regulated. The latter were also elevated in SLE-afflicted (NZBxNZW)F1 mice that were treated with hCDR1. Addition of TGF-beta, which was elevated following treatment with hCDR1, to T cells from 16/6Id immunized mice, up-regulated Foxj1 and Foxo3a mRNA expression, similarly to hCDR1. In contrast, anti-TGF-beta antibodies added to hCDR1-treated T cells abrogated its effect. Thus, hCDR1 elevates TGF-beta, which contributes to the up-regulation of T cell Foxj1 and Foxo3a expression, leading to inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and IFN-gamma secretion, which is required for the maintenance of SLE.

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