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#29033128   2017/10/16 Save this To Up

The DNA Inflammasome in Human Myeloid Cells Is Initiated by a STING-Cell Death Program Upstream of NLRP3.

Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3. Forward genetics identified regulators of lysosomal trafficking to modulate this cell death program, and subsequent studies revealed that activated STING traffics to the lysosome, where it triggers membrane permeabilization and thus lysosomal cell death (LCD). Importantly, the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 pathway constitutes the default inflammasome response during viral and bacterial infections in human myeloid cells. We conclude that targeting the cGAS-STING-LCD-NLRP3 pathway will ameliorate pathology in inflammatory conditions that are associated with cytosolic DNA sensing.

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#29024797   2017/10/12 Save this To Up

NLRX1 modulates differentially NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling during Fusobacterium nucleatum infection.

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) play a large role in regulation of host innate immunity, yet their role in periodontitis remains to be defined. NLRX1, a member of the NLR family that localizes to mitochondria, enhances mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation. mROS can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, yet the role of NLRX1 in NLRP3 inflammasome activation has not been examined. In this study, we revealed the mechanism by which NLRX1 positively regulates ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through mROS in gingival epithelial cells (GECs). We found that depletion of NLRX1 by shRNA attenuated ATP-induced mROS generation and redistribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome adaptor protein, ASC. Furthermore, depletion of NLRX1 inhibited Fusobacterium nucleatum infection-activated caspase-1, suggesting that it also inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome. Conversely, NLRX1 also acted as a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling and IL-8 expression. Thus, NLRX1 stimulates detection of the pathogen F. nucleatum via the inflammasome, while dampening cytokine production. We expect that commensals should not activate the inflammasome, and NLRX1 should decrease their ability to stimulate expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8. Therefore, NLRX1 may act as a potential switch with regards to anti-microbial responses in healthy or diseased states in the oral cavity.

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#28971472   2017/10/03 Save this To Up

ASC and NLRP3 impair host defense during lethal pneumonia caused by serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice.

Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, consisting of NLRP3, ASC (the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) and caspase-1, has been implicated in protective immunity during pneumonia induced by high doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 2. Here we investigated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the host response during lethal airway infection with a low dose of serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. Mice were euthanized at predefined endpoints for analysis or observed in survival studies. In additional studies, Tlr2(-/-) /Tlr4(-/-) mice and Myd88(-/-) mice incapable of Toll-like receptor signaling were studied. In stark contrast with existing literature, both Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice showed a strongly improved host defense, as reflected by a markedly reduced mortality rate accompanied by diminished bacterial growth and dissemination. Host defense was unaltered in Tlr2(-/-) /Tlr4(-/-) mice and Myd88(-/-) mice. These results show that the NLRP3 inflammasome impairs host defense during lethal pneumonia caused by serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. Our findings challenge the current paradigm that proximal innate detection systems are indispensable for an adequate host immune response against bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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#28784930   2017/08/08 Save this To Up

Guanylate Binding Proteins Regulate Inflammasome Activation in Response to Hyperinjected Yersinia Translocon Components.

Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize virulence-associated secretion systems to inject, or translocate, effector proteins into host cells to manipulate cellular processes and promote bacterial replication. However, translocated bacterial products are sensed by nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs), which trigger the formation of a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, leading to secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines, pyroptosis, and control of pathogen replication. Pathogenic Yersinia bacteria inject effector proteins termed Yops, as well as pore-forming proteins that comprise the translocon itself, into target cells. The Yersinia translocation regulatory protein YopK promotes bacterial virulence by limiting hyperinjection of the translocon proteins YopD and YopB into cells, thereby limiting cellular detection of Yersinia virulence activity. How hyperinjection of translocon proteins leads to inflammasome activation is currently unknown. We found that translocated YopB and YopD colocalized with the late endosomal/lysosomal protein LAMP1 and that the frequency of YopD and LAMP1 association correlated with the level of caspase-1 activation in individual cells. We also observed colocalization between YopD and Galectin-3, an indicator of endosomal membrane damage. Intriguingly, YopK limited the colocalization of Galectin-3 with YopD, suggesting that YopK limits the induction or sensing of endosomal membrane damage by components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon. Furthermore, guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) encoded on chromosome 3 (Gbp(Chr3) ), which respond to pathogen-induced damage or alteration of host membranes, were necessary for inflammasome activation in response to hyperinjected YopB/-D. Our findings indicate that lysosomal damage by Yersinia translocon proteins promotes inflammasome activation and implicate GBPs as key regulators of this process.

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#28783696   2017/08/07 Save this To Up

IL-1β is an innate immune sensor of microbial proteolysis.

Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key proinflammatory cytokine that drives antimicrobial immune responses. IL-1β is aberrantly activated in autoimmune diseases, and IL-1β inhibitors are used as therapeutic agents to treat patients with certain autoimmune disorders. Review of postmarketing surveillance of patients receiving IL-1β inhibitors found a disproportionate reporting of invasive infections by group A Streptococcus (GAS). IL-1β inhibition increased mouse susceptibility to GAS infection, but IL-1β was produced independent of canonical inflammasomes. Newly synthesized IL-1β has an amino-terminal prodomain that blocks signaling activity, which is usually proteolytically removed by caspase-1, a protease activated within the inflammasome structure. In place of host caspases, the secreted GAS cysteine protease SpeB generated mature IL-1β. During invasive infection, GAS isolates may acquire pathoadaptive mutations eliminating SpeB expression to evade detection by IL-1β. Pharmacological IL-1β inhibition alleviates this selective pressure, allowing invasive infection by nonpathoadapted GAS. Thus, IL-1β is a sensor that directly detects pathogen-associated proteolysis through an independent pathway operating in parallel with host inflammasomes. Because IL-1β function is maintained across species, yet cleavage by caspases does not appear to be, detection of microbial proteases may represent an ancestral system of innate immune regulation.

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#28783585   2017/08/07 Save this To Up

Downregulated NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways in the development and progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways may play an important role in the development and progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, relative research is rare.

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#28691886   2017/07/10 Save this To Up

Salivary Levels of NLRP3 Inflammasome-Related Proteins as Potential Biomarkers of Periodontal Clinical Status.

Emerging evidence suggests that the activation of inflammasomes plays a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study aimed to compare the salivary levels of nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cysteine aspartase-1 (caspase-1), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) from individuals with aggressive (AgP) or chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC), as well as elucidate its association with the periodontal clinical status.

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#28525267   2017/05/19 Save this To Up

Supernatant from Hepatocyte Cultures with Drugs That Cause Idiosyncratic Liver Injury Activates Macrophage Inflammasomes.

There is increasing evidence that most idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is immune mediated, and in most cases, reactive metabolites appear to be responsible for the induction of this immune response. Reactive metabolites can cause cell damage with the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which is thought to be involved in immune activation. Presumably, the reason that the liver is a common target of idiosyncratic drug reactions is because it is the major site of drug metabolism and reactive metabolite formation. Inflammasomes can be activated by DAMPs, and this may be a common mechanism by which DAMPs initiate an immune response. In this study, we tested the ability of drugs to induce the release of DAMPs that activate inflammasomes. The drugs tested were amodiaquine and nevirapine; both are associated with significant incidences of severe IDILI. The hepatocytes were a human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell-4 (FLC-4) cell line. For the detection of inflammasome activation, we used the human macrophage cell line, THP-1 cells. We found that the supernatant from the incubation of both drugs with FLC-4 cells for 7 days led to increased caspase-1 activity and production of IL-1β by THP-1 cells. However, amodiaquine alone also directly activated THP-1 cells. This is presumably because the myeloperoxidase in THP-1 cells can bioactivate amodiaquine to a reactive metabolite. In contrast, nevirapine requires cytochromes P450 for reactive metabolite formation and therefore required incubation with hepatocytes. These results support the hypothesis that reactive metabolites of drugs can cause the release of DAMPs, which in turn can activate inflammasomes. Inflammasome activation may be an important step in the activation of the immune system by drugs, which in some patients can lead to IDILI. Our in vitro model is simple and convenient for evaluating inflammasome activation, and this may be a method to screen drugs for IDILI risk.

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#28465656   2017/05/03 Save this To Up

Resolvin D1 inhibits inflammatory response in STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy rats: Possible involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signaling pathway.

To investigate the effect of resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP3) inflammasome and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats.

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#28245402   2017/02/28 Save this To Up

[Caspase1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK Prevents and Treats the Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in Mice].

To explore the effect of Caspase 1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK on acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT) and its mechanism.

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