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#28718961   2017/07/18 Save this To Up

Photodegradation kinetics, transformation, and toxicity prediction of ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid in aqueous solutions.

Photodegradation of 3 commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The kinetic results showed that the 3 pharmaceuticals obeyed the first-order reaction with decreasing rate constants of 1.54 × 10(-4) , 5.91 × 10(-5) , and 7.78 × 10(-6)  s(-1) for carprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Moreover, the main transformation products were identified by ion-pair liquid-liquid extraction combined with injection port derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis. There were 8, 3, and 6 transformation products identified for ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Decarboxylation, dechlorination, oxidation, demethylation, esterification, and cyclization were proposed to be associated with the transformation of the 3 pharmaceuticals. Toxicity prediction of the transformation products was conducted on the EPI Suite software based on ECOSAR model, and the results indicate that some of the transformation products were more toxic than the parent compounds. The present study provides the foundation to understand the transformation behavior of the studied pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. © 2017 SETAC.

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#28649858   2017/06/26 Save this To Up

Two new protostane-type triterpenoids from Alisma orientalis.

Two new protostane-type triterpenoids, 17-epi alisolide (1) and 24-epi alismanol D (2), were isolated from Alisma orientalis together with one known compound. Their structural elucidations were conducted by NMR, UV and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with the literature data. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on HCE-2. Compound 2 displayed moderate inhibitory activity against HCE-2 with IC50 value of 23.1 μM.

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#28589636   2017/06/07 Save this To Up

25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and its C-3 epimer are elevated in the skin and serum of Skh-1 mice supplemented with dietary vitamin D3.

UV exposure is a risk factor for keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) while critical for endogenous vitamin D production. We investigated dietary modulation of skin and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) and its C-3 epimer (C3epi) in a mouse model of KC. C3epi is an under-investigated metabolite of vitamin D with respect to its biological implications.

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3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene Mouse Anti-1,25 Dihydroxy Mouse Anti-25 OH Vitamin 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- N-Acetyl Glyphosate-d3 C5 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 Alogliptin-d3 C18H18D3N5O

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#28476984   2017/05/06 Save this To Up

Optical detection of CA 15.3 breast cancer antigen using CdS quantum dot.

The present study focus on optical sensing of breast cancer antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) using cadmium sulphide quantum dot (CdS-QD) in saline and serum samples spiked with antigen. The surface of CdS-QD was modified by cysteamine capping followed by tagging of CA 15.3 antibody. The samples were characterised using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-VIS Spectroscopy), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) attached with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, phase contrast inverted epi-fluorescence microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry (EDS). The CdS-QD showed a mean diameter of 3.02 ± 0.6 nm. The complex formed after antigen-antibody interaction resulted in distinguishable optical and fluorescence intensity with respect to varying concentration of antigen. The PL study revealed that CA 15.3 antibody labelled CdS QD can detect CA 15.3 tumour marker even at very low concentration of 0.002 KU/L with a constant response time of 15 min. This study clearly indicates that detection of CA 15.3 at low concentration is possible using surface modified CdS QD in serum samples and can find immense applications in biosensor development for detection of breast cancer marker similar to various automated detection kits available in market.

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#28257382   2017/03/03 Save this To Up

Customized Corneal Cross-Linking-A Mathematical Model.

To improve the safety, reproducibility, and depth of effect of corneal cross-linking with the ultraviolet A (UV-A) exposure time and fluence customized according to the corneal thickness.

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#28231884   2017/02/24 Save this To Up

A paper-based multiplexed resonance energy transfer nucleic acid hybridization assay using a single form of upconversion nanoparticle as donor and three quantum dots as acceptors.

Monodisperse aqueous upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were covalently immobilized on aldehyde modified cellulose paper via reductive amination to evaluate the multiplexing capacity of luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between UCNPs and quantum dots (QDs). This is the first account of a multiplexed bioassay strategy that demonstrates the principle of use of a single form of UCNP as donor and three different color emitting QDs as acceptors to concurrently determine three analytes. Broad absorbance profiles of green, orange and red QDs that spanned from the first exciton absorption peak to the UV region were in overlap with a blue emission band from UCNPs composed of NaYF4 that was doped with 30% Yb(3+), 0.5% Tm(3+), allowing for LRET that was stimulated using 980 nm near-infrared radiation. The characteristic narrow and well-defined emission peaks of UCNPs and QDs allowed for the collection of luminescence from each nanoparticle using a band-pass optical filter and an epi-fluorescence microscope. The LRET system was used for the concurrent detection of uidA, Stx1A and tetA gene fragments with selectivity even in serum samples, and reached limits of detection of 26 fmol, 56 fmol and 76 fmol, respectively.

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#28154020   2017/02/03 Save this To Up

Comparison of Performance of Improved Serum Estimators of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) to (99m)Tc-DTPA GFR Methods in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements are critical in patients with hepatic cirrhosis but potentially erroneous when based on serum creatinine. New equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have shown variable performance in cirrhotics, possibly because of inaccuracies in reference methods for measured GFR (mGFR). The primary objective was to compare the performance of 4 improved eGFR equations with a 1-compartment, 2-sample plasma slope intercept (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR method to determine whether any of the eGFR calculations could replace plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR in patients with cirrhosis. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that mGFR using voluntary voided urine collections introduces error compared with plasma-only methods. Methods: Fifty-four patients with hepatic cirrhosis underwent mGFR determinations from 2 plasma samples at 1 and 3 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of (99m)Tc-DTPA. GFR was also generated by a UV/P calculation derived from blood and urine samples. These mGFRs were compared with the eGFRs generated by 4 estimating equations: MDRD (Modified Diet in Renal Disease), CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration) (serum creatinine [SCr]), CKD-EPI (cystatin [CysC]), and CKD-EPI (CysC+SCr). eGFRs were compared with mGFRs by Pearson correlation, precision, bias, percentage bias, and accuracy (eGFRs varying by <10% [p10], <20% [p20] or <30% [p30] from the corresponding mGFR). Results: All eGFRs showed poorer performance when the UV/P (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR was used as the reference than when the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR was used. When compared with the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR method, the performance of all eGFR equations was superior to most published reports. There was a moderately good positive correlation between eGFRs and mGFRs. When compared with plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR, precision of eGFRs was in the range of 14-20 mL/min and showed a negligible bias. Compared with the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR, CKD-EPI (CysC+SCr) showed the best overall performance and accuracy, at 85.19% (p30), 75.93% (p20), and 42.59% (p10). Conclusion: Estimating equations for measuring eGFR performed better than in most published reports, attributable to use of the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR method as a reference. CKD-EPI (CysC+SCr) eGFR showed the best overall performance. However, more discriminating methods may be required when accurate GFR measurements are necessary. mGFR measurements using urine collections may introduce error compared with plasma-only methods.

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#28149951   2017/02/02 Save this To Up

Unravelling Photochemical Relationships Among Natural Products from Aplysia dactylomela.

Aplydactone (1) is a brominated ladderane sesquiterpenoid that was isolated from the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela together with the chamigranes dactylone (2) and 10-epi-dactylone (3). Given the habitat of A. dactylomela, it seems likely that 1 is formed from 2 through a photochemical [2 + 2] cycloaddition. Here, we disclose a concise synthesis of 1, 2, and 3 that was guided by excited state theory and relied on several highly stereoselective transformations. Our experiments and calculations confirm the photochemical origin of 1 and explain why it is formed as the sole isomer. Irradiation of 3 with long wavelength UV light resulted in a [2 + 2] cycloaddition that proceeded with opposite regioselectivity. On the basis of this finding, it seems likely that the resulting regioisomer, termed "8-epi-isoaplydactone", could also be found in A. dactylomela.

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#28121296   2017/01/25 Save this To Up

[Dynamics of riboflavin level in aqueous humour of anterior chamber of experimental animals under standard stroma saturation by ultraviolet corneal cross-linking solutions].

To evaluate the dynamics of riboflavin changes in the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber (AHAC) of rabbits' eyes during standard ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking with account to the area of corneal debridement.

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#27173116   2016/05/13 Save this To Up

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry identification of intermediates and vulcanization products by using squalene as vulcanization model compound.

Sulfur-vulcanized rubber is a three-dimensional polymer network, insoluble in all organic solvents. For this reason, vulcanization products are difficult to study and identify by conventional analytical techniques. To simplify this task, low molecular weight olefins have been used as model compounds (MCs) in place of rubber in vulcanization experiments.

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