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EphA2 receptor activation by monomeric Ephrin-A1 on supported membranes.

The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 interacts with its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ephrin-A1 ligand in a juxtacrine configuration. The soluble ephrin-A1 protein, without its GPI membrane linker, fails to activate EphA2. However, preclustered ephrin-A1 protein is active in solution and has been frequently used to trigger the EphA2 receptor. Although this approach has yielded insights into EphA2 signaling, preclustered ligands bypass natural receptor clustering processes and thus mask any role of clustering as a signal regulatory mechanism. Here, we present EphA2-expressing cells with a fusion protein of monomeric ephrin-A1 (mEA1) and enhanced monomeric yellow fluorescent protein that is linked to a supported lipid bilayer via a nickel-decahistidine anchor. The mEA1 is homogeneously dispersed, laterally mobile, and monomeric as measured by fluorescence imaging, correlation spectroscopy, and photon counting histogram analysis, respectively. Ephrin-A1 presented in this manner activates EphA2 on the surface of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, as measured by EphA2 phosphorylation and degradation. Spatial mutation experiments in which nanopatterns on the underlying substrate restrict mEA1 movement in the supported lipid bilayer reveal spatio-mechanical regulation of this signaling pathway, consistent with recently reported observations using a synthetically cross-linked ephrin-A1 dimer.

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Ephrin A1 antibody Source Goat Anti- Adenosine A1 r Rat monoclonal anti mouse Anti-A1 Adenosine Recepto Adenosine A1 receptor Adenosine A1 receptor Ant Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone Estrogen Receptor; Clone Estrogen Receptor; Clone Progesterone Receptor (P Progesterone Receptor (P

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High yield expression of non-phosphorylated protein tyrosine kinases in insect cells.

The key role of kinases in signal transduction and cell growth regulation has been a long standing interest among academics and the pharmaceutical industry. Recombinant enzymes have been used to understand the mechanism of action as well as to screen for chemical inhibitors. The baculo-insect system has been the primary method used to obtain soluble and active kinases, usually producing a mixture of the kinase in various phosphorylation states in different conformations. To obtain a homogenous preparation of non-phosphorylated kinases is critical for biochemical, biophysical and kinetic studies aimed at understanding the mechanism of kinase activation. Taking advantage of the eukaryotic expression property of insect cells, we were able to obtain high yield expression of non-phosphorylated protein tyrosine kinases BTK, JAK3 and Eph2A through coexpression with the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which suggests that this method can be applied to protein tyrosine kinases in general. We have demonstrated that the fully non-phosphorylated BTK obtained with this method is suitable for various biochemical and kinetic studies.

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Sf9 insect cells Sf21 insect cells superSf9-1 insect cells superSf9-2 insect cells superSf9-3 insect cells Apoptosis Phospho-Specifi EGF Phospho-Specific Arra Tyrosine Kinase Adaptors Octyl â D 1 thioglucopyr HMG2 (High mobility group HIV 1 intergase antigen. Anti C Reactive Protein A

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Expression and purification of the intact cytoplasmic domain of the human ephrin receptor A2 tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli.

The ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2) is an integral membrane protein tyrosine kinase and a member of the Eph family, the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases. EphA2 overexpression is sufficient to transform normal epithelial cells into an aggressive, metastatic phenotype. In normal cells, EphA2 negatively regulates cell growth and invasiveness. Here we report expression of the intact cytoplasmic domain (juxtamembrane linker, tyrosine kinase, and sterile alpha motif domains) of the human EphA2 receptor in an Escherichia coli system. The expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity by use of metal chelation chromatography combined with removal of vector-encoded tags by specific proteolysis. The cytoplasmic domains of EphA2 are expressed as an active kinase, with the expressed protein found to contain phosphorylated tyrosine residues. In addition, protein tyrosine phosphorylation appears only after EphA2 expression is induced and is removable with alkaline phosphatase treatment. The enzyme was purified 5-fold in yields that average 10-30 mg/L of active EphA2 cytoplasmic domains, which will now be used for further biophysical and structural characterization.

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