Search results for: ELASTASE Human Cathepsin G
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A Neutrophil Proteomic Signature in Surgical Trauma Wounds.Non-healing wounds continue to be a clinical challenge for patients and medical staff. These wounds have a heterogeneous etiology, including diabetes and surgical trauma wounds. It is therefore important to decipher molecular signatures that reflect the macroscopic process of wound healing. To this end, we collected wound sponge dressings routinely used in vacuum assisted therapy after surgical trauma to generate wound-derived protein profiles via global mass spectrometry. We confidently identified 311 proteins in exudates. Among them were expected targets belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, complement, and skin-derived proteins, such as keratins. Next to several S100 proteins, chaperones, heat shock proteins, and immune modulators, the exudates presented a number of redox proteins as well as a discrete neutrophil proteomic signature, including for example cathepsin G, elastase, myeloperoxidase, CD66c, and lipocalin 2. We mapped over 200 post-translational modifications (PTMs; cysteine/methionine oxidation, tyrosine nitration, cysteine trioxidation) to the proteomic profile, for example, in peroxiredoxin 1. Investigating manually collected exudates, we confirmed presence of neutrophils and their products, such as microparticles and fragments containing myeloperoxidase and DNA. These data confirmed known and identified less known wound proteins and their PTMs, which may serve as resource for future studies on human wound healing.
Neutrophil Elastase Inhib Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti ING1B antisense AKT1 (dn) Inducible HIV 1 intergase antigen. Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m
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Suppressing IL-36-driven inflammation using peptide pseudosubstrates for neutrophil proteases.Sterile inflammation is initiated by molecules released from necrotic cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Members of the extended IL-1 cytokine family are important DAMPs, are typically only released through necrosis, and require limited proteolytic processing for activation. The IL-1 family cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ, are expressed as inactive precursors and have been implicated as key initiators of psoriatic-type skin inflammation. We have recently found that IL-36 family cytokines are proteolytically processed and activated by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases, elastase, and cathepsin G. Inhibitors of IL-36 processing may therefore have utility as anti-inflammatory agents through suppressing activation of the latter cytokines. We have identified peptide-based pseudosubstrates for cathepsin G and elastase, based on optimal substrate cleavage motifs, which can antagonize activation of all three IL-36 family cytokines by the latter proteases. Human psoriatic skin plaques displayed elevated IL-36β processing activity that could be antagonized by peptide pseudosubstrates specific for cathepsin G. Thus, antagonists of neutrophil-derived proteases may have therapeutic potential for blocking activation of IL-36 family cytokines in inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis.
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Proteolytic signatures define unique thrombin-derived peptides present in human wound fluid in vivo.The disease burden of failing skin repair and non-healing ulcers is extensive. There is an unmet need for new diagnostic approaches to better predict healing activity and wound infection. Uncontrolled and excessive protease activity, of endogenous or bacterial origin, has been described as a major contributor to wound healing impairments. Proteolytic peptide patterns could therefore correlate and "report" healing activity and infection. This work describes a proof of principle delineating a strategy by which peptides from a selected protein, human thrombin, are detected and attributed to proteolytic actions. With a particular focus on thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCP), we show that distinct peptide patterns are generated in vitro by the human S1 peptidases human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, and the bacterial M4 peptidases Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and Staphylococcus aureus aureolysin, respectively. Corresponding peptide sequences were identified in wound fluids from acute and non-healing ulcers, and notably, one peptide, FYT21 (FYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE), was only present in wound fluid from non-healing ulcers colonized by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Our result is a proof of principle pointing at the possibility of defining peptide biomarkers reporting distinct proteolytic activities, of potential implication for improved diagnosis of wound healing and infection.
2030 related Products with: Proteolytic signatures define unique thrombin-derived peptides present in human wound fluid in vivo.C Peptide ELISA Kit, Rat Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon CELLKINES Natural Human I Human Interleukin-4 IL-4 Human Interleukin-6 IL-6 Human Interleukin-7 IL-7 Human Interleukin-2 IL-2 Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Insulin-like Growth
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Serpin-9 and -13 regulate hemolymph proteases during immune responses of Manduca sexta.Serpins are a superfamily of proteins, most of which inhibit cognate serine proteases by forming inactive acyl-enzyme complexes. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, serpin-1, -3 through -7 negatively regulate a hemolymph serine protease system that activates precursors of the serine protease homologs (SPHs), phenoloxidases (POs), Spätzles, and other cytokines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of M. sexta serpin-9 and -13. Serpin-9, a 402-residue protein most similar to Drosophila Spn77Ba, has Rat the P1 position right before the cleavage site; Serpin-13, a 444-residue ortholog of Drosophila Spn28Dc, is longer than the other seven serpins and has Ras the P1 residue. Both serpins are mainly produced in fat body and secreted into plasma to function. While their mRNA and protein levels were not up-regulated upon immune challenge, they blocked protease activities and affected proPO activation in hemolymph. Serpin-9 inhibited human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, trypsin, and chymotrypsin to different extents; serpin-13 reduced trypsin activity to approximately 10% at a molar ratio of 4:1 (serpin: enzyme). Serpin-9 was cleaved at Argby the enzymes with different specificity, but serpin-13 had four P1 sites (Argfor trypsin-like proteases, Glyand Alafor the elastase and Thrfor cathepsin G). Supplementation of induced cell-free hemolymph (IP, P for plasma) with recombinant serpin-9 did not noticeably affect proPO activation, but slightly reduced the PO activity increase after 0-50% ammonium sulfate fraction of the IP had been elicited by bacteria. In comparison, addition of recombinant serpin-13 significantly inhibited proPO activation in IP and the suppression was stronger in the fraction of IP. Serpin-9- and -13-containing protein complexes were isolated from IP using their antibodies. Hemolymph protease-1 precursor (proHP1), HP6 and HP8 were found to be associated with serpin-9, whereas proHP1, HP2 and HP6 were pulled downed with serpin-13. These results indicate that both serpins regulate immune proteases in hemolymph of M. sexta larvae.
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RecombinantSerine Protease Inhibitors Alter Macrophage Polarization.During parasite infection, serine protease inhibitors secreted by parasites play important roles in suppressing host defenses. However, the mechanism of immune regulation is unclear. In this study, a serpin gene from, named-Serpin, was cloned and expressed, in order to reveal its role in the regulation of the host immune response ininfection. The results showed that-Serpin encodes a 43 kDa protein that was recognized by serum frominfected mice at 60 days post-infection (dpi).-Serpin was found to be expressed at all developmental stages of. Inhibitory activity analysis showed that recombinant-Serpin (r-Serpin) effectively inhibited the hydrolytic activity of porcine pancreatic elastase (elastase P), human neutrophil elastase (elastase H), and mouse mast cell protease-1, but showed little inhibitory for human neutrophil cathepsin G (cathepsin G). Furthermore, r-Serpin induced polarization of macrophages toward the alternatively activated phenotype (M2) alone by activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced classically activation (M1). These data preliminarily demonstrate that-Serpin may play an important role in the immunoregulation ofinfection by activating the M2-polarized signaling pathway.
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Whole genome gene expression changes and hematological effects of rikkunshito in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving first line chemotherapy.It has been demonstrated that the traditional Chinese medicine rikkunshito, ameliorates anorexia in several types of human cancer and attenuates lung injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration. The current study investigated the clinical and hematological effects of rikkunshito and its underlying mechanisms of action in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Illumina microarray BeadChip was used to analyze the whole-genome expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 17 patients with advanced NSCLC. These patients were randomized to receive combination chemotherapy (cisplatin and gemcitabine) with (n=9, CTH+R group) or without (n=8, CTH group) rikkunshito. The primary endpoint was the treatment response and the categories of the scales of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and fatigue; secondary endpoints included the hematological effect and whole genome gene expression changes. The results of the current study indicated that there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, including treatment response and toxicity events, between the two groups. Median one-year overall survival (OS) was 12 months in the CTH group and 11 months in the CTH+R group (P=0.058 by log-rank test), while old age (>60 years old) was the only independent factor associated with one-year OS (hazard ratio 1.095, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.189, P=0.030). Patients in the CTH+R group experienced significantly greater maximum decreases in both white cell count (P=0.034) and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.030) from the baseline. A total of 111 genes associated with neutrophil apoptosis, the cell-killing ability of neutrophils, natural killer cell activation and B cell proliferation were up-regulated following rikkunshito treatment. A total of 48 genes associated with neutrophil migration, coagulation, thrombosis and type I interferon signaling were down-regulated following rikkunshito treatment. Rikkunshito may therefore affect the blood neutrophil count when used with combination chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC, potentially by down-regulating prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 1,,and junctional adhesion molecule 3, while up-regulating elastase, neutrophil expressed, proteinase 3, cathepsin G and cluster of differentiation 24.
2745 related Products with: Whole genome gene expression changes and hematological effects of rikkunshito in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving first line chemotherapy.Lung non small cell cance Middle advanced stage lun Non-small cell lung cance Small cell lung carcinoma Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Lung small cell carcinoma High density non small ce Multiple lung carcinoma ( Advanced lung cancer and DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Lung cancer tissue array,
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Epithelial desquamation observed in a phase I study of an oral cathepsin C inhibitor (GSK2793660).Cathepsin C (CTSC) is necessary for the activation of several serine proteases including neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G and proteinase 3. GSK2793660 is an oral, irreversible inhibitor of CTSC that is hypothesized to provide an alternative route to achieve NE inhibition and was tested in a Phase I study.
1483 related Products with: Epithelial desquamation observed in a phase I study of an oral cathepsin C inhibitor (GSK2793660).Cathepsin B&L Inhibitor Z Proteinase Inhibitor 9 (P Proteinase Inhibitor 6 (P Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp Rabbit Anti-G protein alp
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A secondary wave of neutrophil infiltration causes necrosis and ulceration in lesions of experimental American cutaneous leishmaniasis.We evaluated the importance of neutrophils in the development of chronic lesions caused by L. Viannia spp. using the hamster as experimental model of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Neutrophils infiltrated the lesion within the first six hours post-infection. Inhibition of this early infiltration using a polyclonal antibody or cyclophosphamide was associated with transient parasite control but the protective effect vanished when lesions became clinically apparent. At lesion onset (approximately 10 days p.i.), there was an increased proportion of both uninfected and infected macrophages, and subsequently a second wave of neutrophils infiltrated the lesion (after 19 days p.i.) This second neutrophil infiltration was associated with lesion necrosis and ulceration (R2 = 0.75) and maximum parasite burden. Intradermal delivery of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), aimed to increase neutrophil infiltration, resulted in larger lesions with marked necrosis and higher parasite burden than in mock treated groups (p<0.001 each). In contrast, reduced neutrophil infiltration via cyclophosphamide-mediated depletion led to more benign lesions and lower parasite loads compared to controls (p<0.001 each). Neutrophils of the second wave expressed significantly lower GM-CSF, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than those of the first wave, suggesting that they had less efficient anti-leishmania activity. However, there was increased inflammatory cytokines and expression of neutrophil proteases (myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G and elastase) in lesions during the second wave of neutrophil infiltration compared with the levels reached during the first wave (6h p.i.). This suggests that augmented neutrophil proteases and inflammatory cytokines during the secondary wave of neutrophils could contribute to skin inflammation, ulceration and necrosis in ACL. The overall results indicate that neutrophils were unable to clear the infection in this model, and that the second wave of neutrophils played an important role in the severity of ACL.
2361 related Products with: A secondary wave of neutrophil infiltration causes necrosis and ulceration in lesions of experimental American cutaneous leishmaniasis.Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati Neutrophil Elastase Inhib Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti ELISA Kit for Tumor Necr ING1B antisense AKT1 (dn) Inducible HIV 1 intergase antigen. Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon
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The Alpha-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Boosts Elastase Activity of Human PMNs and Their Ability to Kill.Despite the availability of vaccines,remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia. Using an aged mouse infection model, we previously showed that oral supplementation with the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E (α-Toc) decreases pulmonary inflammation, in part by modulating neutrophil migration across lung epithelium into alveolar spaces, and reverses the age-associated decline in resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. The objective of this study was to test the effect of α-Toc on the ability of neutrophils isolated from young (22-35 years) or elderly (65-69 years) individuals to migrate across epithelial cell monolayers in response toand to kill complement-opsonized pneumococci. We found that basal levels of pneumococcal-induced transepithelial migration by PMNs from young or elderly donors were indistinguishable, suggesting that the age-associated exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation is not due to intrinsic properties of PMNs of elderly individuals but rather may reflect the inflammatory milieu of the aged lung. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory activity, α-Toc treatment diminished PMN migration regardless of donor age. Unexpectedly, unlike previous studies showing poor killing of antibody-opsonized bacteria, we found that PMNs of elderly donors were more efficient at killing complement-opsonized bacteriathan their younger counterparts. We also found that the heightened antimicrobial activity in PMNs from older donors correlated with increased activity of neutrophil elastase, a serine protease that is required to kill pneumococci. Notably, incubation with α-Toc increased PMN elastase activity from young donors and boosted their ability to kill complement-opsonized pneumococci. These findings demonstrate that α-Toc is a potent modulator of PMN responses and is a potential nutritional intervention to combat pneumococcal infection.
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Neutrophil extracellular traps can serve as platforms for processing and activation of IL-1 family cytokines.Activated neutrophils can undergo a mode of regulated cell death, called NETosis, that results in the extrusion of chromatin into the extracellular space, thereby acting as extracellular traps for microorganisms. Neutrophil-derived extracellular traps (NETs) are comprised of DNA decorated with histones, antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil granule proteases, such as elastase and cathepsin G (Cat G). NET-associated factors are thought to enhance the antimicrobial properties of these structures and localisation of antimicrobial molecules on NETs may serve to increase their local concentration. Because neutrophil-derived proteases have been implicated in the processing and activation of several members of the extended interleukin (IL)-1 family, we wondered whether neutrophil NETs could also serve as platforms for the activation of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that neutrophil NETs potently processed and activated IL-1α as well as IL-36 subfamily cytokines through NET-associated Cat G and elastase. Thus, in addition to their role as antimicrobial traps, NETs can also act as local sites of cytokine processing and activation.
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