Search results for: E cadherin, Antigen blocking peptide
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HS protects lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by blocking NFκB transactivation in endothelial cells.Hydrogen sulfide (HS) is a novel gasotransmitter and acts as a multifunctional regulator in various cellular functions. Past studies have demonstrated a significant role of HS and its generating enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major pathogenic factor, is known to initiate the inflammatory immune response. The cross talk between LPS-induced inflammation and the CSE/HS system in vascular cells has not yet been elucidated in detail. Here we showed that LPS decreased CSE mRNA and protein expression in human endothelial cells and blocked HS production in mouse aorta tissues. Transfection of the cells with TLR4-specific siRNA knockdown TLR4 mRNA expression and abolished the inhibitory role of LPS on CSE expression. Higher dose of LPS (100μg/ml) decreased cell viability, which was reversed by exogenously applied HS at physiologically relevant concentration (30μM). Lower dose of LPS (10μg/ml) had no effect on cell viability, but significantly induced inflammation gene expressions and cytokines secretion and stimulated cell hyper-permeability. HS treatment prevented LPS-induced inflammation and hyper-permeability. Lower VE-cadherin expression in LPS-incubated cells would contribute to cell hyper-permeability, which was reversed by HS co-incubation. In addition, HS treatment blocked LPS-induced NFκB transactivation. We further validated that LPS-induced hyper-permeability was reversed by CSE overexpression but further deteriorated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CSE. In vivo, deficiency of CSE sensitized the mice to LPS-induced inflammation in vascular tissues. Take together, these data suggest that CSE/HS system protects LPS-induced inflammation and cell hyper-permeability by blocking NFκB transactivation.
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Constitutive Activation of Integrin α9 Augments Self-Directed Hyperplastic and Proinflammatory Properties of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes of Rheumatoid Arthritis.Despite advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), currently approved medications can have significant side effects due to their direct immunosuppressive activities. Additionally, current therapies do not address residual synovial inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of integrin α9 and its ligand, tenascin-C (Tn-C), on the proliferative and inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients grown in three-dimensional (3D)-micromass culture. FLSs from osteoarthritis patients, when grown in the 3D-culture system, formed self-directed lining-like structures, whereas FLSs from RA tissues (RA-FLSs) developed an abnormal structure of condensed cellular accumulation reflective of the pathogenic features of RA synovial tissues. Additionally, RA-FLSs grown in 3D culture showed autonomous production of proinflammatory mediators. Predominant expression of α9 and Tn-C was observed in the condensed lining, and knockdown of these molecules abrogated the abnormal lining-like structure formation and suppressed the spontaneous expression of matrix metalloproteinases, IL-6, TNFSF11/RANKL, and cadherin-11. Disruption of α9 also inhibited expression of Tn-C, suggesting existence of a positive feedback loop in which the engagement of α9 with Tn-C self-amplifies its own signaling and promotes progression of synovial hyperplasia. Depletion of α9 also suppressed the platelet-derived growth factor-induced hyperplastic response of RA-FLSs and blunted the TNF-α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases and IL-6. Finally, α9-blocking Ab also suppressed the formation of the condensed cellular lining by RA-FLSs in 3D cultures in a concentration-related manner. This study demonstrates the central role of α9 in pathogenic behaviors of RA-FLSs and highlights the potential of α9-blocking agents as a nonimmunosuppressive treatment for RA-associated synovitis.
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E-Cadherin-Mediated Cell Contact Controls the Epidermal Damage Response in Radiation Dermatitis.Radiotherapy is a primary oncological treatment modality that also damages normal tissue, including the skin, and causes radiation dermatitis (RD). Here, we explore the mechanism of acute epidermal damage in radiation dermatitis. Two distinctive phases in the damage response were identified: an early destructive phase, where a burst of reactive oxygen species induces loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell contact, followed by a regenerative phase, during which Wnt and Hippo signaling are activated. A blocking peptide, as well as a neutralizing antibody to E-cadherin, works synergistically with ionizing radiation to promote the epidermal damage. In addition, ROS disassembles adherens junctions in epithelial cells via posttranslational mechanisms, that is, activation of Src/Abl kinases and degradation of β-catenin/E-cadherin. The key role of tyrosine kinases in this process is further substantiated by the rescue effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, and the more specific Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib: both reduced ROS-induced degradation of β-catenin/E-cadherin in vitro and ameliorated skin damage in rodent models. Finally, we confirm that the same key molecular events are also seen in human radiation dermatitis. Therefore, we propose that loss of cell contact in epidermal keratinocytes through reactive oxygen species-mediated disassembly of adherens junctions is pivotal for the acute epidermal damage in radiation dermatitis.
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TSLP signaling blocking alleviates E-cadherin dysfunction of airway epithelium in a HDM-induced asthma model.Recent studies have indicated that Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of asthma. However the role of TSLP in dysfunction of airway epithelial adherens junctions E-cadherin in house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma has not been addressed. We hypothesized that TSLP contributed to HDM-induced E-cadherin dysfunction in asthmatic BALB/c mice and 16HBE cells. In vivo, a HDM-induced asthma mouse model was set up for 8weeks. Mice inhaled an anti-TSLP monoclonal antibody (mAb) before HDM. The mice treated with the anti-TSLP mAb ameliorated airway inflammation, the decreasing and aberrant distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin as well as phosphorylation(p)-AKT induced by HDM. In vitro, HDM increased the expression of TSLP and E-cadherin dysfunction by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The exposure of 16HBE to TSLP resulted in redistribution of E-cadherin. These results indicate that TSLP may be an important contributor in E-cadherin dysfunction of HDM-induced asthma. TSLP signaling blocking shows a protective effect in mice and that the PI3K/Akt pathway may play a role in this process.
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Epigenetic regulation of HGF/Met receptor axis is critical for the outgrowth of bone metastasis from breast carcinoma.Our translational research deals with the influence of microenvironment on the phenotype and colonization of bone metastases from breast carcinoma, and on pre-metastatic niche formation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the origin of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), ligand of Met receptor, the control of the axis HGF/Met by DNA methylation, and its importance for the nexus supportive cells-metastatic cells and for metastasis outgrowth. In bone metastasis of the 1833-xenograft model, DNA methyltransferase blockade using the chemotherapic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) strongly reduced the expression of HGF/Met receptor axis and of E-cadherin, with decrease of metastasis wideness and osteolysis, prolonging mice survival. Thus, DNA methylation events acted as commanders of breast carcinoma cells metastatizing to bone influencing the epithelial phenotype. HGF emerged as a bone-marrow stimulus, and the exosomes seemed to furnish HGF to metastatic cells. In fact, decitabine treatment similarly affected some markers of these microvesicles and HGF, indicating that its supply to recipient cells was prevented. Notably, in bone metastasis the hypomethylation of HGF, Met and E-cadherin promoters did not appear responsible for their elevated expression, but we suggest the involvement of hypermethylated regulators and of Wwox oncosuppressor, the latter being affected by decitabine. Wwox expression increased under decitabine strongly localizing in nuclei of bone metastases. We hypothesize a role of Wwox in Met activity since in vitro Wwox overexpression downregulated the level of nuclear-Met protein fragment and Met stability, also under long exposure of 1833 cells to decitabine. HGF enhanced phosphoMet and the activity in nuclei, an effect partially prevented by decitabine. Altogether, the data indicated the importance to target the tumor microenvironment by blocking epigenetic mechanisms, which control critical events for colonization such as HGF/Met axis and Wwox, as therapy of bone metastasis.
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Leukocytes Breach Endothelial Barriers by Insertion of Nuclear Lobes and Disassembly of Endothelial Actin Filaments.The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers. Surprisingly, formation of both paracellular gaps and transcellular pores by squeezing leukocytes did not require Rho kinase or myosin II-mediated endothelial contractility. Electron-microscopic analysis suggested that nuclear squeezing displaced without condensing the endothelial actin filaments. Blocking endothelial actin turnover abolished leukocyte nuclear squeezing, whereas increasing actin filament density did not. We propose that leukocyte nuclei must disassemble the thin endothelial actin filaments interlaced between endothelial stress fibers in order to complete TEM.
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Inhibition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis by Combined TGFbeta Knockdown and Metformin Treatment in a Canine Mammary Cancer Xenograft Model.Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal properties, generating metastases. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is associated with this malignancy by having the ability to induce EMT. Metformin, has been shown to inhibit EMT in breast cancer cells. Based on this evidence we hypothesize that treatment with metformin and the silencing of TGF-β, inhibits the EMT in cancer cells. Canine metastatic mammary tumor cell line CF41 was stably transduced with a shRNA-lentivirus, reducing expression level of TGF-β1. This was combined with metformin treatment, to look at effects on cell migration and the expression of EMT markers. For in vivo study, unmodified or TGF-β1sh cells were injected in the inguinal region of nude athymic female mice followed by metformin treatment. The mice's lungs were collected and metastatic nodules were subsequently assessed for EMT markers expression. The migration rate was lower in TGF-β1sh cells and when combined with metformin treatment. Metformin treatment reduced N-cadherin and increased E-cadherin expression in both CF41 and TGF-β1sh cells. Was demonstrated that metformin treatment reduced the number of lung metastases in animals bearing TGF-β1sh tumors. This paralleled a decreased N-cadherin and vimentin expression, and increased E-cadherin and claudin-7 expression in lung metastases. This study confirms the benefits of TGF-β1 silencing in addition to metformin as potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer patients, by blocking EMT process. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report metformin treatment in cells with TGF-β1 silencing and their effect on EMT.
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MicroRNA-346 facilitates cell growth and metastasis, and suppresses cell apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer by regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-cadherin pathway.Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here we report the definition of miR-346 as a novel oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce invasion of human melanoma cells in vitro via differential regulation of N-cadherin expression and RhoA activity.Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) exert multiple cytotoxic actions on cancer cells. Currently, different synthetic HDACi are in clinical use or clinical trials; nevertheless, since both pro-invasive and anti-invasive activities have been described, there is some controversy about the effect of HDACi on melanoma cells.
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Migration Suppression of Small Cell Lung Cancer by Polysaccharides from Nostoc commune Vaucher.Nostoc commune Vauch., classified into cyanobacteria, has been always well appreciated as a healthy food and medicine worldwide owing to its rich nutrition and potent bioactivities. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from N. commune Vauch. (NVPS) against cancer cell progression and metastasis is still being unraveled. The results in this study showed that NVPS remarkably suppressed cell migration through blocking the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in NCI-H446 and NCI-H1688 human small cell lung cancer cells. The inhibitory effects were attributed to the suppression of integrin β1/FAK signaling through regulating cell-matrix adhesion. Furthermore, NVPS treatment could increase E-cadherin expression, but down-regulate N-cadherin, Vimentin, and MMP-9 expression, which resulted in the blockage of STAT3 nuclear translocation and JAK1 signaling. These findings suggest that NVPS may be a good candidate for development as a possible antitumor agent against small cell lung cancer.
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