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           Search results for: Cmas,CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase,CMP-NeuNAc synthase,Mouse,Mus musculus,N-acylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase   

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Deciphering structure, function and mechanism of Plasmodium IspD homologs from their evolutionary imprints.

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne blood disease caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. Anti-malarial drug resistance is a global threat to control and eliminate malaria and therefore, it is very important to discover and evaluate new drug targets. The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (IspD) homolog is a second in vivo target for fosmidomycin within isoprenoid biosynthesis in malarial parasites. In the present study, we have deciphered the sequence-structure-function integrity of IspD homologs based on their evolutionary imprints. The function and catalytic mechanism of them were also intensively studied by using sequence-structure homology, molecular modeling, and docking approach. Results of our study indicated that substrate-binding and dimer interface motifs in their structures were extensively conserved and part of them closely related to eubacterial origins. Amino acid substitutions in their coiled-coil regions found to bring a radical change in secondary structural elements, which in turn may change the local structural environment. Arg or Asp was identified as a catalytic site in plasmodium IspD homologs, contributing a direct role in the cytidylyltransferase activity similar to bacterial IspD. Results of molecular docking studies demonstrated how anti-malarial drugs such as fosmidomycin and FR-900098 have competitively interacted with the substrate-binding site of these homologs. As shown by our analysis, species-specific evolutionary imprints in these homologs determine the sequence-structure-function-virulence integrity and binding site alterations in order to confer anti-malarial drug resistance.

1356 related Products with: Deciphering structure, function and mechanism of Plasmodium IspD homologs from their evolutionary imprints.

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Rhodotorula glutinis as a living cell liposome to deliver polypeptide drugs in vivo.

The potential advantages of recombinant microbes as oral drug carriers for curing diseases have attracted much attention. The use of recombinant oil microbes as living cell liposomes to carry polypeptide drugs may be an ideal polypeptide oral drug delivery system. GM4-ΔTS was constructed by LFH-PCR from Rhodotorula glutinis GM4, which was screened and preserved in our laboratory, and then transferred into choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which is a rate-limiting enzyme for lecithin synthesis. The results showed that the CCT gene was highly expressed in the GM4-ΔTS strain and could significantly increase fatty acid and lecithin contents in GM4-ΔTS-PGK1-CCT. Moreover, insulin, H22-LP, and α-MSH were successfully introduced into cells in vitro, and the strain no longer proliferated in vivo, for safe and controllable polypeptide drug delivery. In vivo, normal mice were intragastrically administered with recombinant strains carrying insulin and α-MSH, and different levels of polypeptide drugs were detected in serum and tissue, respectively. Then, recombinant strains carrying insulin were administered to type II diabetes mellitus mice. The results showed that the strains could effectively reduce blood glucose levels in mice, which indicated that the recombinant strains could carry insulin into the body, and the drug effect was remarkable. Therefore, recombinant GM4-ΔTS-PGK1-CCT strains were successfully used as living cell liposomes to carry insulin, H22-LP, and α-MSH peptides into the body for the first time; additionally, these strains have enhanced safety, controllability, and efficacy.

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Nuclear lipid droplets derive from a lipoprotein precursor and regulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

The origin and physiological significance of lipid droplets (LDs) in the nucleus is not clear. Here we show that nuclear LDs in hepatocytes are derived from apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-free lumenal LDs, a precursor to very low-density lipoproprotein (VLDL) generated in the ER lumen by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. ApoB-free lumenal LDs accumulate under ER stress, grow within the lumen of the type I nucleoplasmic reticulum, and turn into nucleoplasmic LDs by disintegration of the surrounding inner nuclear membrane. Oleic acid with or without tunicamycin significantly increases the formation of nucleoplasmic LDs, to which CDP-choline diacylglycerol phosphotransferase α (CCTα) is recruited, resulting in activation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. Perilipin-3 competes with CCTα in binding to nucleoplasmic LDs, and thus, knockdown and overexpression of perilipin-3 increases and decreases PC synthesis, respectively. The results indicate that nucleoplasmic LDs in hepatocytes constitute a feedback mechanism to regulate PC synthesis in accordance with ER stress.

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KDM2B regulates choline kinase expression and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

The process of neuronal differentiation is associated with neurite elongation and membrane biogenesis, and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells. During neuroblast differentiation, the transcription of two genes involved in PtdCho biosynthesis are stimulated: Chka gene for choline kinase (CK) alpha isoform and Pcyt1a gene for CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) alpha isoform. Here we show that CKα is essential for neuronal differentiation. In addition, we demonstrated that KDM2B regulates CKα expression and, as a consequence, neuronal differentiation. This factor is up-regulated in the course of the neuroblasts proliferative and undifferentiated state and down-regulated during differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). During proliferation, KDM2B binds to the Box2 located in the Chka promoter repressing its transcription. Interestingly, KDM2B knockdown enhances the levels of CKα expression in neuroblast cells and induces neuronal differentiation even in the absence of RA. These results suggest that KDM2B is required for the appropriate regulation of CKα during neuronal differentiation and to the maintaining of the undifferentiated stage of neuroblast cells.

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Disease-linked mutations in the phosphatidylcholine regulatory enzyme CCTα impair enzymatic activity and fold stability.

CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the key regulatory enzyme in phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis and is activated by binding to PC-deficient membranes. Mutations in the gene encoding CCTα () cause three distinct pathologies in humans: lipodystrophy, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (SMD-CRD), and isolated retinal dystrophy. Previous analyses showed that for some disease-linked variants steady state levels of CCTα and PC synthesis were reduced in patient fibroblasts, but other variants impaired PC synthesis with little effect on CCT levels. To explore the impact on CCT stability and function we expressed WT and mutant CCTs in COS-1 cells, which have very low endogenous CCT. Over-expression of two missense variants in the catalytic domain (V142M and P150A) generated aggregated enzymes that could not be refolded after solubilization by denaturation. Other mutations in the catalytic core that generated CCTs with reduced solubility could be purified. Five variants destabilized the catalytic domain-fold as assessed by lower transition temperatures for unfolding, and three of these manifested defects in substrate values. A mutation (R223S) in a signal-transducing linker between the catalytic and membrane-binding domains also impaired enzyme kinetics. E280del, a single amino acid deletion in the autoinhibitory helix increased the constitutive (lipid-independent) enzyme activity ∼4-fold. This helix also participates in membrane binding, and surprisingly E280del enhanced the enzyme's response to anionic lipid vesicles ∼4-fold. These analyses on purified mutant CCTs will complement future measurements of their impact on PC synthesis in cultured cells and in tissues with a stringent requirement for CCTα.

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Lipin 2/3 phosphatidic acid phosphatases maintain phospholipid homeostasis to regulate chylomicron synthesis.

The lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate in most mammalian tissues. The 3 lipin proteins (lipin 1, lipin 2, and lipin 3) each have PAP activity, but have distinct tissue distributions, with lipin 1 being the predominant PAP enzyme in many metabolic tissues. One exception is the small intestine, which is unique in expressing exclusively lipin 2 and lipin 3. TAG synthesis in small intestinal enterocytes utilizes 2-monoacylglycerol and does not require the PAP reaction, making the role of lipin proteins in enterocytes unclear. Enterocyte TAGs are stored transiently as cytosolic lipid droplets or incorporated into lipoproteins (chylomicrons) for secretion. We determined that lipin enzymes are critical for chylomicron biogenesis, through regulation of membrane phospholipid composition and association of apolipoprotein B48 with nascent chylomicron particles. Lipin 2/3 deficiency caused phosphatidic acid accumulation and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, which were associated with enhanced protein levels of a key phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme (CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α) and altered membrane phospholipid composition. Impaired chylomicron synthesis in lipin 2/3 deficiency could be rescued by normalizing phospholipid synthesis levels. These data implicate lipin 2/3 as a control point for enterocyte phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron biogenesis.

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Liver and plasma lipid changes induced by cyclic fatty acid monomers from heated vegetable oil in the rat.

Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) generated through domestic or industrial heating of vegetable oils may alter liver enzymes and induce hepatomegaly and steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of CFAM on liver and plasma lipids and to determine whether these effects are modulated by dietary lipids. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were fed either of the four isoenergetic diets consisting of canola oil or soybean oil with/without 500 mg/100 g CFAM of total fat for 28 days. Rats fed CFAM had higher liver total lipids (=0.03) and triacylglycerols (TAG) (=0.02), but less hepatic phosphatidylcholine (=0.02) compared to those fed the non-CFAM diets. CFAM did not alter liver phosphatidylethanolamine -methyltransferase (PEMT) activity and CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT-α) protein levels. Rats fed CFAM diets had higher levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), VLDL + LDL cholesterol, higher ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol compared with rats fed non-CFAM diets (<0.05). Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) was decreased with CFAM, but plasma insulin, glucose, and TAG did not vary among the four diet groups (<0.05). Rats fed canola oil and CFAM had higher plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and AST/ALT ratio compared with the other three diet groups. These results indicate that CFAM may provoke an accumulation of TAG in the liver related to a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels, but the effect of CFAM on PC concentrations may not occur through impairment of the two main PC biosynthesis pathways.

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GDE5 inhibition accumulates intracellular glycerophosphocholine and suppresses adipogenesis at a mitotic clonal expansion stage.

Mammalian glycerophosphodiesterases (GDEs) were recently shown to be involved in multiple cellular signaling pathways. This study showed that decreased GDE5 expression results in accumulation of intracellular glycerophosphocholine (GPC), showing that GDE5 is actively involved in GPC/choline metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we further studied the biological significance of GPC/choline metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Inhibition of GDE5 suppressed the formation of lipid droplets, which is accompanied by the decreased expression of adipocyte differentiation markers. We further showed that the decreased GDE5 expression suppressed mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of preadipocytes. Decreased expression of CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCTβ), a rate-limiting enzyme for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, is similarly able to inhibit MCE and PC synthesis; however, the decreased GDE5 expression resulted in accumulation of intracellular GPC but did not affect PC synthesis. Furthermore, we showed that mRNAs of proteoglycans and transporters for organic osmolytes are significantly upregulated and that intracellular amino acids and urea levels are altered in response to GDE5 inhibition. Finally, we showed that reduction of GDE5 expression increased lactate dehydrogenase release from preadipocytes. These observations indicate that decreased GDE5 expression can suppress adipocyte differentiation not through the PC pathway but possibly by intracellular GPC accumulation. These results provide insight into the roles of mammalian GDEs and their dependence upon osmotic regulation by altering intracellular GPC levels.

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Methionine and choline supply alter transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine pathways to different extents in isolated primary liver cells from dairy cows.

Insufficient supply of Met and choline (Chol) around parturition could compromise hepatic metabolism and milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Mechanistic responses associated with supply of Met or Chol in primary liver cells enriched with hepatocytes (PHEP) from cows have not been thoroughly ascertained. Objectives were to isolate and culture PHEP to examine abundance of genes and proteins related to transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathways in response to Met or Chol. The PHEP were isolated from liver biopsies of Holstein cows (160 d in lactation). More than 90% of isolated cells stained positively for the hepatocyte marker cytokeratin 18. Cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) mRNA abundance was only detectable in the PHEP and liver tissue compared with mammary tissue. Furthermore, in response to exogenous Met (80 μM vs. control) PHEP secreted greater amounts of albumin and urea. Subsequently, PHEP were cultured with Met (40 μM) or Chol (80 mg/dL) for 24 h. Compared with control or Chol, mRNA and protein abundance of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT) were greater in PHEP treated with Met. The mRNA abundance of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) was greater in Met-treated PHEP compared with control or Chol. Compared with control, greater expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), and choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) was observed in cells supplemented with Met and Chol. However, Chol led to the greatest mRNA abundance of CHDH. Abundance of choline kinase α (CHKA), choline kinase β (CHKB), phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 α (PCYT1A), and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1) in the CDP-choline pathway was greater in PHEP treated with Chol compared with control or Met. In the transsulfuration pathway, mRNA and protein abundance of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) was greater in PHEP treated with Met compared with control or Chol. Similarly, abundance of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) was greater in response to Met compared with control or Chol. Overall, these findings suggest that transmethylation and transsulfuration in dairy cow primary liver cells are more responsive to Met supply, whereas the CDP-choline pathway is more responsive to Chol supply. The relevance of these data in vivo merit further study.

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Phosphatidylcholine synthesis regulates triglyceride storage and chylomicron secretion by Caco2 cells.

Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) supply fatty acids for energy, membrane biogenesis, and lipoprotein secretion. The surface monolayer of LDs is composed of phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine (PC), that stabilize the neutral lipid core of triglyceride (TG). To determine the relationship between PC synthesis and TG storage and secretion in chylomicrons, we used a model of intestinal-derived human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco2) cells with knockout of PCYT1A, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT)α in the CDP-choline pathway, that were treated with the fatty acid oleate. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of CCTα in Caco2 cells (Caco2-KO cells) reduced PC synthesis by 50%. Compared with Caco2 cells, Caco2-KO cells exposed to oleate had fewer and larger LDs and greater TG accumulation as a result. The addition of exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine to Caco2-KO cells reversed the LD morphology defect. Caco2-KO cells, differentiated into epithelial monolayers, accumulated intracellular TG and had deficient TG and chylomicron-associated apoB48 secretion; apoB100 secretion was unaffected by CCTα knockout or oleate. Metabolic-labeling and LD imaging of Caco2-KO cells indicated preferential shuttling of de novo synthesized TG into larger LDs rather than into chylomicrons. Thus, reduced de novo PC synthesis in Caco2 cells enhances TG storage in large LDs and inhibits apoB48 chylomicron secretion.

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