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An improved method for development of toxoid vaccines and antitoxins.

Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known and causative agents of human botulism. Treatment comprises of administering purified polyclonal antitoxin or the prophylactic use of a vaccine containing formaldehyde inactivated toxoid. Whilst formaldehyde inhibits toxin activity, it induces so many structural changes in the molecule that immunisation often results in low levels of neutralising antibodies. We describe here for the first time a simple, less time consuming, novel method for producing a non-toxic toxoid that is structurally and antigenically more similar to the native toxin. Toxin is chemically inactivated by alkylation with iodoacetamide in the presence of reversibly denaturing conditions. This reduces neurotoxic activity by at least 7-orders of magnitude to undetectable levels. Following immunisation, in vivo neutralising antibody levels were 600-times higher than those produced with formaldehyde toxoid, despite generating equivalent ELISA antitoxin binding titres. These studies demonstrate that the new toxoid retains more of the native toxins structure and critical epitopes responsible for inducing life-saving neutralising antibody. Toxoid produced by the new method should substantially improve both antitoxin and vaccine production and be applicable to other toxins and immunogens.

2815 related Products with: An improved method for development of toxoid vaccines and antitoxins.

MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Clostridium botulinum D T Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 succinate-CoA ligase, GDP formin-like 1 antibody So succinate-CoA ligase, ADP Primary antibody Caspase

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Botulinum neurotoxin vaccines: past, present, and future.

In the early 1930s, a formalin-inactivated toxoid against botulinum neurotoxin was first tested in humans. In 1965, a pentavalent botulinum toxoid (PBT) received Investigational New Drug (IND) status under the Centers for Disease Control's IND 161 (for at-risk workers), and in 1991 under the United States Army's Office of the Surgeon General IND 3723 (for military deployment). This PBT vaccine has been shown to be safe, with over 20,000 injections given to date, and continues to be used in at-risk individuals. During the past decade, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to develop second-generation vaccines to prevent botulism. Recombinant subunit vaccines utilizing the receptor-binding domains of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been shown to be safe and efficacious in protecting animal models against BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, D, E, and F. In 2004, the first recombinant subunit vaccine [rBV A/B (Pichia pastoris) vaccine] was tested in humans during a phase I clinical trial. Results from that study demonstrated that the recombinant bivalent vaccine was safe and well tolerated at all dosage levels tested and stimulated serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies among the majority of vaccine recipients.

1233 related Products with: Botulinum neurotoxin vaccines: past, present, and future.

Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Clostridium botulinum D T Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2

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Localization of the regions on the C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of botulinum A recognized by T lymphocytes and by antibodies after immunization of mice with pentavalent toxoid.

We have mapped the regions recognized by T and/or B cells (Abs) on the C-terminal domain (Hc) of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) after immunization of two inbred mouse strains with pentavalent toxoid (BoNTs A, B, C, D and E). Using a set of synthetic overlapping peptides, encompassing the entire Hc domain (residues 855-1296), we demonstrated that T cells of Balb/c (H-2d) mice, primed with one injection of toxoid, recognized two major regions within residues 897-915 and 939-957. After multiple inoculations with toxoid, T cells of Balb/c expanded their recognition ability and responded very well to challenge with peptide 1261-1279 and moderately to stimulation with peptide 1149-1167. Unlike Balb/c T cells, those of toxoid-primed SJL (H-2s) mice exhibited a more complex profile and responded to challenge with a large number of overlapping peptides. After one toxoid injection, however, three peptides, 897-915, 939-957/953-971 overlap and 1051-1069, were the most potent T cells stimulators. After three toxoid injections, peptides 897-915 and 1051-1069 remained immunodominant while the third region was shifted upstream to 925-943/939-957 overlap. The immunodominant epitope within peptide 897-915 was recognized exclusively by T cells, since no Abs were detected against this region. The Ab binding profiles of the two mouse strains were quite similar, showing only small quantitative differences. Both, Balb/c and SJL anti-toxoid Abs displayed strong binding mainly to peptide 1177-1195, followed by peptides 869-887/883-901 overlap and 1275-1296. In addition, a significant amount of Balb/c anti-toxoid Abs was bound to peptide 1135-1153. Unlike Balb/c Abs, that interacted weakly with peptides 995-1013 and 1051-1069, the anti-toxoid Abs of SJL mice exhibited strong binding toward both peptides. The results showed that, in a given strain, the regions recognized by anti-toxoid Abs and T cells may coincide or may be uniquely B or T cell determinants.

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Rat Anti-CCT theta Antibo Rabbit Anti-Theophylline Sheep Anti-Theophylline 3 Multiple organ cancer tis Multiple organ tumor tiss Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Mouse Anti-Bacteroides th Clostridium botulinum D T TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab

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Binding of Clostridium botulinum type B toxin to rat brain synaptosome.

Purified toxin and its subunits from Clostridium botulinum type B were labeled with 125iodine and binding of them to rat brain synaptosomes was studied. Labeled toxin and heavy chain were shown to bind to synaptosomes and there was no significant difference in the molar quantity of bound toxin and heavy chain at several concentrations of synaptosomes, whereas labeled light chain did not bind to synaptosomes. The binding of labeled heavy chain to synaptosomes was inhibited by unlabeled toxin and heavy chain to a similar degree as that of labeled toxin. The binding of labeled toxin and heavy chain to synaptosomes were inhibited by a monoclonal antibody which is specific for the heavy chain.

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Clostridium botulinum D T Mouse Anti-Clostridium bo Mouse Anti-Clostridium bo Rabbit Anti-Clostridium b Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T ELRGBI Rat IgG anti bovin Rat anti-bovine type I co Rat anti-bovine type I co ELRGBII Rat IgG anti bovi Rat anti-bovine type II c Rat anti-bovine type II c

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Immunochemical identification of the ADP-ribosyltransferase in botulinum C1 neurotoxin as C3 exoenzyme-like molecule.

Botulinum C1 neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme were purified to apparent homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Clostridium botulinum type C strain 003-9. Both preparations catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the same substrate, the Mr 22,000 rho gene product (Gb). When the light and heavy chains of C1 toxin were separated, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in the toxin was quantitatively recovered in the light chain fraction. Anti-C1 toxin antiserum precipitated the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and the neurotoxicity of C1 toxin in parallel, whereas it had no effect on C3 exoenzyme. On the other hand, anti-C3 exoenzyme antiserum precipitated the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of both C3 exoenzyme and C1 toxin. This antibody, however, did not precipitate the neurotoxicity of C1 toxin. The ADP-ribosyltransferase in C1 toxin was quantitatively adsorbed onto the anti-C3 antibody column and separated from the majority of C1 toxin protein. The enzyme was then eluted with acidic urea and Western blotting analysis of this eluate revealed the appearance of a protein band positively stained with anti-C3 antibody at a position similar to that of C3 exoenzyme. Quantitative determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the C3-like immunoreactivity is present in the C1 toxin molecules at the molecular ratio of 1 to 1,000. These results suggest that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in C1 toxin is expressed by a C3-like molecule which is present in a small amount in the toxin preparation and appears to bind to the toxin component(s). The above results also indicate that the ADP-ribosyltransferase in C1 toxin is not related to its neurotoxin action.

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EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD Amplite™ Fluorimetric H Amplite™ Intracellular Amplite™ Fluorimetric P Amplite™ Fluorimetric A PhosphoWorks™ Fluorimet Cell Meter™ Intracellul Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri

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The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of EcoRI fragment containing the 5'-terminal region of Clostridium botulinum type E toxin gene cloned from Mashike, Iwanai and Otaru strains.

Chromosomal DNAs were extracted from toxigenic three Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from food-borne botulism. After digestion by EcoRI, the fragments were cloned into Escherichia coli by using bacteriophage lambda gt11 and screened with monoclonal antibody recognizing the light chain component of botulinum type E toxin. The fragments (about 1 kbp size) cloned from each strain were recloned into a plasmid vector pUC118. The E. coli cells transformed with the recombinant plasmids produced 33 kDa protein with or without IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) which reacted with the monoclonal antibody. The nucleotide sequences of the cloned EcoRI fragments from the three type E strains were identical and contain the 5'-terminal region of the type E toxin gene. It was also found that there exist several highly homologous nucleotide sequences among the botulinum types A, C and E, and tetanus toxin genes in both translated and untranslated regions.

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[Active immunization of poultry against botulism].


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Kinetics study of immunological response to Clostridium botulinum toxin.

A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of humoral antibody to type A botulinal toxin was developed. This assay was used to study the kinetics of antibody response of a volunteer to botulinal toxoid. The circulating type A antitoxin was first detected by the ELISA 2 weeks after the first booster injection of the toxoid. The antibody titer stayed level until the second booster at 12 weeks. The titer then continued to rise throughout the remaining study period. The neutralizing antibody to type A toxin was detected by mouse assay 15 weeks after detection of antitoxin by the ELISA.

2715 related Products with: Kinetics study of immunological response to Clostridium botulinum toxin.

Clostridium botulinum D T Mouse Anti-Clostridium bo Mouse Anti-Clostridium bo Rabbit Anti-Clostridium b Mouse Anti-Clostridium di Mouse Anti-Clostridium di Mouse Anti-Clostridium di Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M Cholera toxin antibody, M Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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The structural relation between the antigenic determinants to monoclonal antibodies and binding sites to rat brain synaptosomes and GT1b ganglioside in Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin.

The inhibition of the binding of 125I-labeled Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin to synaptosomes by unlabeled toxin indicated that there were two kinds of receptors on the synaptosomal membrane. The dissociation constants (Kd) were calculated as 79 pM and 35 nM from the concentration of unlabeled toxin that induced half-displacement of bound 125I-toxin. These values agree satisfactorily with the values obtained from direct binding experiments (Agui, T, Syuto, B., Oguma, K., Iida, H., & Kubo, S. (1983) J. Biochem. 94, 521-527). The inhibition of the binding of 125I-toxin to synaptosomes and N-acetylneuraminyl(alpha 2-3)galactosyl(beta 1-3)N-acetylgalactosaminyl(beta 1-4) [N-acetylneuraminyl(alpha 2-8) N-acetylneuraminyl(alpha 2-3)]galactosyl(beta 1-4)glucosyl(beta 1-1)ceramide (GT1b) by unlabeled heavy chain indicated that heavy chain facilitates the binding of toxin to synaptosomes and GT1b. The synaptosomal and heavy chain complex Kd values were estimated as 12 nM and 24 microM. Monoclonal antibodies C-9 and CA-12 recognized the binding sites to GT1b and synaptosomes, respectively. Antigenic determinants against the two antibodies are presumably partially overlapping, and the overlapping area seems to be essential to the reaction between toxin and C-9 antibody.

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Analysis of antigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type C1 and D toxins by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin was purified from C-Stockholm (C-ST), and D toxin was purified from D-1873 and D-South African. Polyclonal antibodies against these toxins were prepared in rabbits. Twenty-eight monoclonal antibodies to these toxins were also prepared with BALB/c myeloma cells. The antibodies were analyzed by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a toxin neutralization test. ELISA was performed with the three purified toxins and heavy-chain (Hc) and light-chain (Lc) components derived from C-ST and D-1873 toxins. A neutralization test was carried out with 11 toxin preparations (7 from type C and 4 from type D cultures). ELISA results indicated that there exists at least one common antigenic determinant on each of the Hc and Lc components of the three purified toxins. The results of the neutralization test also indicated that type C1 and D toxin preparations contain several common antigenic sites in their molecules. Some are common to toxins from several specific cultures, whereas others are common to toxins from a large number of cultures. It was speculated that toxins from two type C strains are composed of Hc and Lc components which are somewhat similar to those of D-1873 and C-ST toxins, respectively.

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