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Overview on the management of non-gastric MALT lymphomas.

Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (EMZLs) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are indolent lymphomas which can present at any extranodal site. The most frequent localizations (other than stomach) are ocular adnexa, salivary gland, skin, lung and thyroid. Chronic inflammation and antigenic stimulation are a potential risk for the development of MALT lymphomas. While Helicobacter Pylori (HP) is known to be associated with gastric MALT lymphoma and antibiotic therapy is effective in the setting of HP-positive, other microorganisms (such as Chlamydophila Psittaci, Campylobacter Jejiuni, Borrelia Burgdoferi) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-gastric MALT lymphomas. However, antibiotic therapy has not been extensively investigated for the non-gastric type, except for ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, which could benefit from an upfront treatment with doxycycline. Surgery, radiotherapy, Rituximab alone or in combination with chemotherapy and "chemo-free" approaches, including lenalidomide, have shown efficacy in the treatment of non-gastric MALT lymphomas.

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A preliminary survey of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes from native and introduced birds in New Zealand.

To describe the Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in samples from native and introduced birds from New Zealand by analysis of the sequence variation of the ompA gene.

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Molecular evidence of Chlamydiales in ticks from wild and domestic hosts in Sardinia, Italy.

Ticks are well known to be important vectors for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and protozoa affecting human and animal health. Ixodid ticks are widely distributed in Sardinia, and an increasing number of tick-borne bacteria have been documented in the island. A growing number of evidence are supporting the hypothesis of alternative transmission routes for chlamydial bacteria such as the involvement of vectors. This study was conducted to provide possible molecular detection of members belonging to the Chlamydiales order in Sardinian ticks and to update information concerning the presence of new ectoparasite-borne bacteria in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical Mediterranean environment. A total of 378 ticks were individually screened with a pan-Chlamydiales specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Chlamydiales DNA was detected in 28% of the total ticks analyzed. The analyses of sequences highlighted that Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Haemaphysalis punctata and Dermacentor marginatus ticks exhibited DNA of Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae members. Our results revealed that DNA of zoonotic microorganisms such as C. psittaci, C. abortus and the emerging pathogen Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are present in Sardinian ticks. Since routes of Chlamydia transmission are yet to be fully defined, the role of ticks as possible vectors for Chlamydiales remains the most challenging and interesting question to be addressed in future research. Continued monitoring of these pathogens in tick vectors is needed to provide strategies for controlling of possible chlamydial infections and disease outbreaks in the island.

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Seroprevalence ofamong Employees of Two German Duck Farms.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that is caused byTo determine the occupational risk of getting the infection, we investigated the seroprevalence ofamong employees of two German duck farms and two slaughterhouses according to their level of exposure to the pathogen during the years 2010, 2007, and 2004. In summary, we found low seroprevalence (≈ 8%) throughout the study population almost irrespective of the duty of a given worker. Surprisingly, in 2010, the anti-.-specific antibody prevalence in the group of slaughterer (38.9%) was significantly increased in comparison to the non-exposed employees (p = 0.00578). This indicates that individuals in the surrounding of slaughterhouses exposed especially to aerosols containingelementary bodies bear a greater occupational risk of getting infected.

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A Promising Recombinant Herpesvirus of Turkeys Vaccine Expressing PmpD-N ofBased on Elongation Factor-1 Alpha Promoter.

The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteriumoften causes avian chlamydiosis and influenza-like symptoms in humans. However, the commercial subunitvaccine could only provide a partial protection against avian chlamydiosis due to poor cellular immune response. In our previous study, a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT)-delivered vaccine againstand Marek's disease based on human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (rHVT-CMV-) was developed and provided an effective protection againstdisease with less lesions and reduced chlamydial loads. In this study, we developed another recombinant HVT vaccine expressing the N-terminal fragment of PmpD (PmpD-N) based on human elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) promoter (rHVT-EF-) by modifying the HVT genome within a bacterial artificial chromosome. The related characterization of rHVT-EF-was evaluatedin comparison with that of rHVT-CMV-. The expression of PmpD-N was determined by western blot. Under immunofluorescence microscopy, PmpD-N protein of both two recombinant viruses was located in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface. Growth kinetics of rHVT-EF-was comparable to that of rHVT-CMV-, and the growth rate of rHVT-EF-was apparently higher than that of rHVT-CMV-on 48, 72, and 120 h postinfection. Macrophages activated by rHVT-EF-could produce more nitric oxide and IL-6 than that activated by rHVT-CMV-. In this study, a recombinant HVT vaccine expressing PmpD-N based on EF-1α promoter was constructed successfully, and a further researchwas needed to analyze the vaccine efficacy.

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CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI IN FERAL ROSY-FACED LOVEBIRDS ( AGAPORNIS ROSEICOLLIS) AND OTHER BACKYARD BIRDS IN MARICOPA COUNTY, ARIZONA.

  In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds ( Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves ( Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.

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Disease burden of psittacosis in the Netherlands.

Psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) can have diverse presentations in humans, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic disease. Awareness of psittacosis and its presentations are low among clinicians and the general public. Therefore, underdiagnosis and thereby underestimation of the incidence and public health importance of psittacosis is very likely. We used the methodology developed for the Burden of communicable diseases in Europe toolkit of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, to construct a model to estimate disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to psittacosis. Using this model, we estimated the disease burden caused by psittacosis in the Netherlands to have been 222 DALY per year (95% CI 172-280) over the period 2012-2014. This is comparable with the amount of DALYs estimated to be due to rubella or shigellosis in the same period in the Netherlands. Our results highlight the public health importance of psittacosis and identify evidence gaps pertaining to the clinical presentations and prognosis of this disease.

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Molecular evidence to suggest pigeon-type Chlamydia psittaci in association with an equine foal loss.

Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C. psittaci strains and the potential infection reservoirs. In this study, we describe the detection and molecular characterization of C. psittaci in a case of equine abortion in southern Queensland. Equine placenta and fresh liver and lung tissue from the necropsied foetus were positive by C. psittaci-specific qPCR. Chlamydia psittaci-specific multilocus sequence typing and ompA genotyping were used to further characterize the detected equine strains and an additional strain obtained from a dove from a different geographic region presenting with psittacosis. Molecular typing of this case revealed that the infecting equine strains were closely related to the C0sittaci detected in dove, all belonging to an evolutionary lineage of C. psittaci strains typically associated with infections of pigeons globally. This finding suggests a broader diversity of C. psittaci strains may be detected in horses and in association with reproductive loss, highlighting the need for an expansion of surveillance studies globally to understand the epidemiology of equine chlamydiosis and the associated zoonotic risk.

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Epidemiological Investigation and Genotype of Chlamydia Exposure in Pigeons in Three Provinces in Northern China.

Chlamydia is considered as one of the most widely prevalent zoonotic pathogens. It can spread from infected birds to human beings through direct or indirect contact with fecal shedding of Chlamydia. However, data concerning prevalence and genotypes of Chlamydia in pigeons are limited. In the present study, a total of 963 serum samples was collected from Jilin Province, Liaoning Province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) in China between August 2015 and December 2016 and the seroprevalence for Chlamydia was analyzed by indirect hemagglutination assay test. The seroprevalence of Chlamydia was 20.4% (215/963) in total, at the cutoff 1:16, with the titers of 1:16 in 109, 1:64 in 49, 1:256 in 38, and 1:1024 in 18. Samples from all six administrative cities were detected Chlamydia-seropositive, ranging from 19.0% to 25.0%. Adult pigeons (23.5%) have a significant higher seroprevalence than juveniles (15.2%). Four PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype B. This is the first report of Chlamydia infection in pigeons in Liaoning Province and IMAR. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype B in the droppings of pigeons suggests potential environmental contamination with C. psittaci and may raise a public health concern.

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Disclosing respiratory coinfections: a Broad-Range Panel Assay for Avian Respiratory Pathogens on a Nanofluidic PCR Platform.

Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in food animals and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian Influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) in turkeys, are considered as key co-infectious agents of respiratory syndromes. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR). This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green RTqPCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled on turkeys showing respiratory syndromes and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive co-infection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assay for unveiling respiratory co-infections profiles in poultry.

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