Search results for: Chicken IgA ELISA
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Evaluation of immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid in chickens.Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most examined nanomaterials, but information about their immunogenic potential is still insufficient. Understanding interaction of AuNPs with immune system is essential in designing their safety and possibilities of biomedical applications. An experiment was conducted to determine immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid (AuNPs) administered orally to chickens depending on dose and duration time. 162 birds were assigned to 9 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group (C) did not receive AuNPs. Groups: T1, T1, T1T1received nano-gold in a rate of 0.5 mg/kg body weight/d, 1.0 mg/kg body weight/d, 1.5 mg/kg body weight/d and 2.0 mg/kg body weight/d in 8-14, 22-28 and 36-42 days of the life. The birds in groups T2, T2, T2T2received nano-gold in the same doses, but only in 8-10, 22-24 and 36-38 days of life. Phagocytic activity of leukocytes was determined in vitro using Staphylococcus aureus 209P strain, their respiratory burst activity was quantified by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Serum lysozyme content was determined by the turbidimetric method. The Wintrobe method was used to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Ceruloplasmin in the blood plasma was estimated by the p-phenylenediamine colorimetric method. The level of chicken immunoglobulins: IgA, IgM and IgY and interleukin IL-6 in the blood were determined using ELISA tests. The lowest dose of AuNPs, independently on duration time had no effect on immune parameters of chickens. In all other groups receiving nano-gold for a shorter period (T2), there was an increase in the respiratory burst activity of leukocytes and a drop in lysozyme activity in blood. The higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight/d) of the nano-gold administered for the longer time period had a pro-inflammatory effect, as indicated by an increase in the level of interleukin 6 and ceruloplasmin activity as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. They also contributed to an elevation of class IgA and IgY contents in blood. The results of the study revealed that the influence of nano-gold on immune response of chickens were dependent both on dose and duration time. Long lasting administration of higher doses of AuNPs contributed to adverse effect in form of inflammation response. To avoid the development of inflammatory reaction, administered dose of nano-gold should not exceed 1.0 mg/kg body weight/d.
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Zymosan A enhances humoral immune responses to soluble protein in chickens.Vaccination is the most effective method for controlling the infectious diseases that threaten the poultry industry worldwide. The use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to improve vaccine efficacy, particularly for vaccines based on recombinant protein or inactivated pathogens. The adjuvant effects of zymosan A on antigen-specific antibody production were investigated in chickens. First, the optimal adjuvant dose of zymosan A was determined. Chicks were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH) at a dosage of 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) with or without zymosan A (at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg BW) co-administration at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Different routes of immunization (oral, intranasal (i.n.), intraocular (i.o.), subcutaneous (s.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) were tested. Anti-DNP IgY and IgA concentrations in serum samples from all chicks were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results revealed that co-administration of zymosan A with DNP-KLH significantly increased anti-DNP IgY concentrations in chicks immunized by the oral and s.c. routes of administration when compared with control groups. In addition, co-administration of zymosan A with DNP-KLH significantly increased anti-DNP IgA concentrations in chicks immunized by the oral, i.o. and s.c. routes compared with control groups. In conclusion, zymosan A is a useful immune-potentiator adjuvant in chickens, and its co-administration with vaccine antigens enhances humoral immune responses.
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Specific antibody-mediated immunity in the reproductive tract of laying chickens immunized against Newcastle disease with conventional attenuated and inactivated vaccines.Despite the widespread and successful use of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can seriously injure the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to rapid egg-drop and poor shell quality. Few published studies investigated local NDV-specific immune response in the reproductive tract after ND vaccination of hens. The present study investigated, for the first time, local NDV-specific antibody-mediated immunity in segments of the oviduct during the laying period. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens were immunized following an ND vaccination programme applied in the field, which combined ND-attenuated vaccine (inoculated subcutaneously at one day, 2 weeks and 11 weeks of age) with inactivated vaccine (inoculated intramuscularly at 17 weeks). The infundibulum, magnum, isthmus and uterus (segments of the reproductive tract) were harvested at 28 weeks and 32 weeks of age (during the laying period). Supernatant from ex vivo tissue culture was collected and tested by: (i) haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, (ii) commercial IDVet ND-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and (iii) NDV-specific IgG, IgM and IgA in-house ELISAs. For all sampling time points and oviduct segments, all samples were positive for commercial ND-ELISA and in-house ELISA-IgG. However, six of these ELISA-IgG positive samples yielded negative results when submitted to the HI test. Interestingly, NDV-specific IgM and IgA were detected frequently in the infundibulum and magnum as compared to the isthmus and uterus. These results show that the antibody immune response in the oviduct was induced by the timing of attenuated and inactivated ND vaccinations.
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The outcome of ELISA for antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibodies is dependent on the composition of phosphatidylethanolamine.The presence of circulating autoantibodies against phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) has been shown to be positively associated with symptoms of antiphospholipid syndromes (APS). However, the current ELISA-based tests for antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) antibodies remain inconsistent and controversial. The term PE refers to a collection of phospholipids that have phosphorylethanolamine head group as a common structural feature, but can vary in fatty acids with diverse physicochemical properties. The present study was to investigate, using synthetic positionally symmetrical PE species as a model system, the impact of PE structural variations on aPE ELISA.
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Chicken Immune Response after In Ovo Immunization with Chimeric TLR5 Activating Flagellin of Campylobacter jejuni.Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant) activity of the vaccine. The antigen (20-40 μg) was administered in ovo to 18 day-old chicken embryos. Serum samples and intestinal content were assessed for antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. In ovo vaccination resulted in the successful generation of IgY and IgM serum antibodies against the flagellin-based subunit vaccine as determined by ELISA and Western blotting. Vaccination did not induce significant amounts of flagellin-specific secretory IgA in the chicken intestine. Challenge of chickens with C. jejuni yielded similar intestinal colonization levels for vaccinated and control animals. Our results indicate that in ovo delivery of recombinant C. jejuni flagellin subunit vaccine is a feasible approach to yield a systemic humoral immune response in chickens but that a mucosal immune response may be needed to reduce C. jejuni colonization.
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Evaluation of Selected Immunomodulatory Glycoproteins as an Adjunct to Cancer Immunotherapy.Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used widely as an adjuvant to chemotherapy with demonstrated anti-tumor and broad immunomodulating effects. While PSP's mechanism of action still remains unknown, its enhanced immunomodulatory potential with acacia gum is of great interest. Acacia gum, which also contains polysaccharides and glycoproteins, has been demonstrated to be immunopotentiating. To elucidate whether PSP directly activates T-cell-dependent B-cell responses in vivo, we used a well-established hapten carrier system (Nitrophenyl-chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG)). 6-week C57BL/6 male mice were immunised with 50 μg of NP25-CGG alum precipitate intraperitoneally. Mice were gavaged daily with 50 mg/kg PSP in a vehicle containing acacia gum and sacrificed at days 0, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. ELISA was used to measure the total and relative hapten-specific anti-NP IgA, IgM and IgG titre levels compared to the controls. It was found that PSP, combined with acacia gum, significantly increased total IgG titre levels at day 4 (P< 0.05), decreased IgM titre levels at days 4 and 21 (P< 0.05) with no alterations observed in the IgA or IgE titre levels at any of the time points measured. Our results suggest that while PSP combined with acacia gum appears to exert weak immunological effects through specific T-cell dependent B-cell responses, they are likely to be broad and non-specific which supports the current literature on PSP. We report for the first time the application of a well-established hapten-carrier system that can be used to characterise and delineate specific T-cell dependent B-cell responses of potential immunomodulatory glycoprotein-based herbal medicines combinations in vivo.
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Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.
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The protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the development of immune function in chickens under heat stress.This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of immune function in chicks under heat stress (HS). One-day-old male Wenchang chicks were randomly divided into control (CK), HS and GABA+HS groups. The GABA+HS group was fed with 0.2 ml GABA solution (50 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage. The HS and GABA+HS groups were placed in 40 ± 0.5 °C environment for 2 h heat treatment from 13:00 each day. Blood samples were routinely taken at 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, and the contents of T and B lymphocyte subsets in the blood and tissue were analysed by flow cytometry after FITC/PE double staining; the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA. The thymus and the bursa of fabricius were also collected to analyse for organ index and observe for the changes in tissue microstructure. In addition, the chicks received primary and secondary immunizations with attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (LaSota strain) at 7 and 28 days respectively; conventional hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed to monitor the titre changes in plasma antibody against ND virus in the birds. Our results indicated that the indices of both thymus and bursa of fabricius, the intactness of tissue structure and development, the plasma levels of IL-2, IgA, IgG and IgM, the titres of ND antibody, and the levels of B and T lymphocyte subsets in HS group were all significantly lower than those in CK group (p < 0.05). However, all above indices were significantly improved in GABA+HS group compared with those in HS group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated that while HS seriously affected the development of immune function in Wenchang chicks, GABA effectively alleviated the damages of HS to the development of immune function in chicks.
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Oral antibiotics enhance antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in orally but not muscularly immunized chickens.Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens.
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Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine associated to Lactobacillus spp. on the humoral response of broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis.This study investigates the effects of different doses of serotonin, its precursor 5-hydroxytry-ptophan (5HTP), and m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine inhibitor (NSD1015), administered via intraperitoneal for 5 consecutive days, on behavior and average body weight of broilers. We also measured the humoral immune response and quantification of Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers chickens that received the drugs evaluated and a Lactobacillus pool. The study was divided into 3 experiments: Experiment 1--administration of pharmaceuticals with choice of dosage; Experiment 2--administration of pharmaceuticals and a Lactobacillus pool in birds that were not challenged with S. Enteritidis, and Experiment 3--administration of pharmaceuticals and a Lactobacillus pool in birds challenged with S. Enteritidis. The ELISA was used to scan dosages of intestinal IgA and serum IgY. We used colony-forming units to quantify S. Enteritidis. The concentrations of IgA and IgY did not show significant differences (P>0.05) in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, NSD1015 associated with Lactobacillus determined higher IgA concentrations, promoting greater stimulus to the immune system than 5HTP. Regarding quantification of S. Enteritidis in the cecal content of birds, 5HTP associated to Lactobacillus determined the smallest number of bacteria, showing possible interaction of 5-hydroxytryptophan and Lactobacillus spp. with the immune system of broiler chickens.
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