Search results for: Chicken Anaemia Virus
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Co-infection of fowl adenovirus with different immunosuppressive viruses in a chicken flock.In poultry, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and immunosuppressive virus co-infection is likely to cause decreased egg production, inclusion body hepatitis, and pericardial effusion syndrome. In this study, fowl adenovirus infection was found in parental and descendent generations of chickens. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot hybridization to detect the infection of reticuloendotheliosis (REV), avian leukosis virus (ALV), and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) in 480 plasma samples. The test samples were 34.58% FADV-positive, 22.29% REV-positive, 7.5% CAV-positive, and 0.63% ALV-positive. Sequence analysis showed that FADV belonged to serotype 7, which can cause inclusion body hepatitis. The ALV strain was ALV-A, in which the homology of gp85 gene and SDAU09C1 was 97.3%. The positive rate was lower because of the purification of avian leukemia, whereas the phylogenetic tree analysis of REV showed that the highest homology was with IBD-C1605, which was derived from a vaccine isolate. Through pathogen detection in poultry we present, to our knowledge, the first discovery of fowl adenovirus type 7 infection in parental chickens and found that there was co-infection of FAdV and several immunosuppressive viruses, such as the purified ALV and CIAV. This indicates that multiple infection of different viruses is ever-present, and more attention should be given in the diagnosis process.
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Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of four immunosuppressive viruses in chicken.Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods to detect chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease virus (MDV), and a reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP assay to detect infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), were developed. The CIAV-LAMP, REV-LAMP, MDV-LAMP, and IBDV-RT-LAMP methods were performed using four sets of six primers targeting the VP1 gene of CIAV, the gp90 gene of REV, the Meq gene of MDV, and the VP2 gene of IBDV. The results (a change in color) were observed visually. The methods showed high specificity and sensitivity. The detection limits were 50 genomic copies of CIAV, 16 genomic copies of REV, 20 genomic copies of MDV, and 250 genomic copies of IBDV. When used to test clinical samples, the results of the LAMP assays were in 100% agreement with a previously described PCR. Therefore, the LAMP assays are simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific methods for detecting four immune-suppressive viruses.
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Chicken anaemia virus evades host immune responses in transformed lymphocytes.Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is a lymphotropic virus that causes anaemia and immunosuppression in chickens. Previously, we proposed that CAV evades host antiviral responses in vivo by disrupting T-cell signalling, but the precise cellular targets and modes of action remain elusive. In this study, we examined gene expression in Marek's disease virus-transformed chicken T-cell line MSB-1 after infection with CAV using both a custom 5K immune-focused microarray and quantitative real-time PCR at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. The data demonstrate an intricate equilibrium between CAV and the host gene expression, displaying subtle but significant modulation of transcripts involved in the T-cell, inflammation and NF-κB signalling cascades. CAV efficiently blocked the induction of type-I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes at 72 h. The cell expression pattern implies that CAV subverts host antiviral responses and that the transformed environment of MSB-1 cells offers an opportunistic advantage for virus growth.
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A novel CAV derived cell-penetrating peptide efficiently delivers exogenous molecules through caveolae-mediated endocytosis.Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is a promising cargo for delivering bioactive molecules. In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much higher cell-penetrating activity. Moreover, CVP1 could successfully deliver β-glycosidase, poly (I:C) and plasmid into HCT116 cells. Inhibitors and temperature sensitivity analysis further indicated that the cell-penetrating activity of CVP1 was based on ATP-dependent and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. All these data demonstrate that CVP1 has efficient cell-penetrating activity and great potential for developing a novel delivery vector.
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An enhanced anti-tumor effect of apoptin-cecropin B on human hepatoma cells by using bacterial magnetic particle gene delivery system.The gene therapy of cancer, due to the limit of its efficiency and safety, has not been widely used in clinical. Recently, bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs), which are membrane-bound nanocrystals found in magnetotactic bacteria, have been exploited as a new gene delivery system. However, its application on gene therapy remains to be explored. In our previous study, we found that a combination of cecropin B (ABPs) and apoptin (VP3) could serve as an effective gene therapeutic agent. Thus, in this study, we used BMPs to deliver the co-expression plasmid of these two gene, namely pVAX1-VA, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2). Our results showed that BMPs significantly improved the efficiency of gene transfection (almost 3-fold than Lipofectamine 2000 at 48 h, P < .001), which led to stronger apoptosis (in a peak almost 2-fold than Lipofectamine 2000-pVAX1-VA, P < .01) and growth inhibition of HepG2 cells. More importantly, compared with Lipofectamine 2000-pVAX1-VA group, BMP-pVAX1-VA strikingly inhibited tumor growth (0.60 ± 0.09 g vs. 0.88 ± 0.11 g, P < .05) in nude mouse tumor models and increased the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes considerably without apparent cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that BMPs could be an attractive gene delivery system for gene therapy and provide a potential available treatment for human hepatocellular carcinoma and maybe some other kinds of tumors.
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Monitoring the uptake of live avian vaccines by their detection in feathers.Protection against diseases caused by the avian viruses, Marek's disease, Infectious laryngotracheitis, chicken anemia and turkey meningoencephalitis is achieved by live vaccines. The application quality is important to assure proper uptake in commercial flocks. We describe a novel evaluation method for the vaccination process by sequential monitoring the vaccine viruses in feathers. Feather collection is easy, non-invasive and non-lethal for the birds, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. To demonstrate the vaccine virus presence, an innovative assay of nested real-time amplification was approached because vaccine viruses presence in vivo is less abundant comparing to virulent wild-type isolates. The Marek's disease virus vaccine virus, Rispens/CVI988, in feathers of commercial flock was detected from 4 to 7 days and for at least 3 months post-vaccination, until the survey stopped. As the drinking water route was newly adopted for Infectious laryngotracheitis vaccination, one or two vaccine doses/bird were administered. The virus uptake was detected in feathers between 2 and 20 days-post-vaccination. With a doubled vaccine dose the positivity bird rate was higher. For the first time the chicken anemia vaccine virus presence in chicken feathers was demonstrated between 14 and 35 days-post-vaccination. No previous studies were available, thus in parallel to feathers the vaccine virus was demonstrated in the livers and spleens. The turkey meningoencephalitis vaccine virus uptake in turkey feather-pulps is even more innovative because this is the first turkey virus amplified from feather-pulps. The vaccine virus presence resemble the kinetics of the other 3 viruses, 3-21 days-post-vaccination. Detecting the specific antibodies following vaccination possessed a lower sensitivity than vaccine virus demonstration in feathers. In summary, the presented assay can be adopted for the quality evaluation of the vaccination process in poultry.
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Identification of the interaction and interaction domains of chicken anemia virus VP2 and VP3 proteins.Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, single-stranded DNA virus of Anelloviridae family. Its genome segments encode three proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. This study identified an interaction between VP2 and VP3 and mapped the interaction domains. Through the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, VP2 was found to interact with VP3. The presence of the VP2-VP3 complex in CAV-infected chicken cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy showed that VP2 and VP3 were expressed in the cytoplasm in cotransfected Vero cells. In the Y2H system, the interaction domains were identified as being within the N-terminal aa 1-30 and C-terminal aa 17-60 for VP2 and the N-terminal aa 46-60 and C-terminal aa 1-7 for VP3. This study showed the interaction between VP2 and VP3 of CAV and identified multiple independent interactive domains within the two proteins. This provides novel information for investigating the biological functions of these proteins.
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VP2 of Chicken Anaemia Virus Interacts with Apoptin for Down-regulation of Apoptosis through De-phosphorylated Threonine 108 on Apoptin.Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is an important contagious agent that causes immunosuppressive disease in chickens. CAV Apoptin is a nucleoplasmic shuffling protein that induces apoptosis in chicken lymphoblastoid cells. In the present study, confocal microscopy revealed co-localisation of expressed CAV non-structural protein VP2 with Apoptin in the nucleus of MDCC-MSB1 cells and the nucleoplasmic compartment of CHO-K1 cells. In vitro pull-down and ex vivo biomolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays further showed that the VP2 protein directly interacts with Apoptin. Transient co-expression of VP2 and Apoptin in MDCC-MSB1 cells significantly decreased the rate of apoptosis compared with that in cells transfected with the Apoptin gene alone. In addition, the phosphorylation status of threonine 108 (Thr108) of Apoptin was found to decrease upon interaction with VP2. Although dephosphorylated Thr108 did not alter the subcellular distribution of Apoptin in the nucleus of MDCC-MSB1 cells, it did suppress apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that VP2 directly interacts with Apoptin in the nucleus to down-regulate apoptosis through alterations in the phosphorylation status of the latter. This information will be useful to further elucidate the underlying mechanism of viral replication in the CAV life cycle.
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Depression of Vaccinal Immunity to Marek's Disease by Infection with Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus.Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set ofexperiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens. The effects of CIAV dual infection on the immunization of commercial MDV vaccine CVI988/Rispens were evaluated. The results show that infection of the SD15 strain of CIAV significantly reduced the weight and antibody titers to avian influenza virus (AIV)/Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines of chickens immunized with the CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the atrophy of thymus/bursa and the enlargement of spleen. The CVI988/Rispens vaccination conferred good immune protection for chickens challenged with 2000 PFU of the GX0101 strain of MDV. However, dual infection with SD15 significantly reduced the body weight, antibody titers induced by AIV/NDV inactivated vaccines and protective index of CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the aggravation of the immunosuppression, mortality, and viremia of GX0101 in CVI988/Rispens-immunized/GX0101-challenged chickens. Overall, CIAV infection significantly reduced the protective effects of the CVI988/Rispens vaccine against MDV, implying that concurrent infection with CIAV may be a major contributor in the frequent attacks of MD in China in recent years.
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Viruses with Circular Single-Stranded DNA Genomes Are Everywhere!Circular single-stranded DNA viruses infect archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic organisms. The relatively recent emergence of single-stranded DNA viruses, such as chicken anemia virus (CAV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), as serious pathogens of eukaryotes is due more to growing awareness than to the appearance of new pathogens or alteration of existing pathogens. In the case of the ubiquitous human circular single-stranded DNA virus family Anelloviridae, there is still no convincing direct causal relation to any specific disease. However, infections may play a role in autoimmunity by changing the homeostatic balance of proinflammatory cytokines and the human immune system, indirectly affecting the severity of diseases caused by other pathogens. Infections with CAV (family Anelloviridae, genus Gyrovirus) and PCV2 (family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus) are presented here because they are immunosuppressive and affect health in domesticated animals. CAV shares genomic organization, genomic orientation, and common features of major proteins with human anelloviruses, and PCV2 DNA may be present in human food and vaccines.
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