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           Search results for: Chc1,Chromosome condensation protein 1,Mouse,Mus musculus,Rcc1,Regulator of chromosome condensation   

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Phytoene production utilizing the isoprenoid biosynthesis capacity of Thermococcus kodakarensis.

Phytoene (C40H64) is an isoprenoid and a precursor of various carotenoids which are of industrial value. Archaea can be considered to exhibit a relatively large capacity to produce isoprenoids, as they are components of their membrane lipids. Here, we aimed to produce isoprenoids such as phytoene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. T. kodakarensis harbors a prenyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are precursors of squalene and phytoene, respectively. However, homologs of squalene synthase and phytoene synthase, which catalyze their condensation reactions, are not found on the genome. Therefore, a squalene/phytoene synthase homolog from an acidothermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Saci_1734, was introduced into the T. kodakarensis chromosome under the control of a strong promoter. Production of the Saci_1734 protein was confirmed in this strain, and the generation of phytoene was detected (0.08-0.75 mg L-1 medium). We then carried out genetic engineering in order to increase the phytoene production yield. Disruption of an acetyl-CoA synthetase I gene involved in hydrolyzing acetyl-CoA, the precursor of phytoene, together with the introduction of a second copy of Saci_1734 led to a 3.4-fold enhancement in phytoene production.

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RCC2 over-expression in tumor cells alters apoptosis and drug sensitivity by regulating Rac1 activation.

Small GTP binding protein Rac1 is a component of NADPH oxidases and is essential for superoxide-induced cell death. Rac1 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and this activation can be blocked by regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2), which binds the switch regions of Rac1 to prevent access from GEFs.

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The nuclear matrix protein HNRNPU maintains 3D genome architecture globally in mouse hepatocytes.

Eukaryotic chromosomes are folded into higher-order conformations to coordinate genome functions. In addition to long-range chromatin loops, recent chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies have indicated higher levels of chromatin structures including compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), which may serve as units of genome organization and functions. However, the molecular machinery underlying these hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architectures remains poorly understood. Via high-throughput assays, including in situ Hi-C, DamID, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq, we investigated roles of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U (HNRNPU), a nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein, in 3D genome organization. Upon the depletion of HNRNPU in mouse hepatocytes, the coverage of lamina-associated domains (LADs) in the genome increases from 53.1% to 68.6%, and a global condensation of chromatin was observed. Furthermore, disruption of HNRNPU leads to compartment switching on 7.5% of the genome, decreases TAD boundary strengths at borders between A (active) and B (inactive) compartments, and reduces chromatin loop intensities. Long-range chromatin interactions between and within compartments or TADs are also significantly remodeled upon HNRNPU depletion. Intriguingly, HNRNPU mainly associates with active chromatin, and 80% of HNRNPU peaks coincide with the binding of CTCF or RAD21. Collectively, we demonstrated that HNRNPU functions as a major factor maintaining 3D chromatin architecture, suggesting important roles of NM-associated proteins in genome organization.

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The structural basis for dynamic DNA binding and bridging interactions which condense the bacterial centromere.

The ParB protein forms DNA bridging interactions around parS to condense DNA and earmark the bacterial chromosome for segregation. The molecular mechanism underlying the formation of these ParB networks is unclear. We show here that while the central DNA binding domain is essential for anchoring at parS, this interaction is not required for DNA condensation. Structural analysis of the C-terminal domain reveals a dimer with a lysine-rich surface that binds DNA non-specifically and is essential for DNA condensation in vitro. Mutation of either the dimerisation or the DNA binding interface eliminates ParB-GFP foci formation in vivo. Moreover, the free C-terminal domain can rapidly decondense ParB networks independently of its ability to bind DNA. Our work reveals a dual role for the C-terminal domain of ParB as both a DNA binding and bridging interface, and highlights the dynamic nature of ParB networks in Bacillus subtilis.

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Condensins promote chromosome individualization and segregation during mitosis, meiosis, and amitosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

Condensin is a protein complex with diverse functions in chromatin packaging and chromosome condensation and segregation. We studied condensin in the evolutionarily distant protist model Tetrahymena, which features non-canonical nuclear organization and divisions. In Tetrahymena, the germline and soma are partitioned into two different nuclei within a single cell. Consistent with their functional specializations in sexual reproduction and gene expression, condensins of the germline nucleus and the polyploid somatic nucleus are composed of different subunits. Mitosis and meiosis of the germline nucleus and amitotic division of the somatic nucleus are all dependent on condensins. In condensin-depleted cells, a chromosome condensation defect was most striking at meiotic metaphase, when Tetrahymena chromosomes are normally most densely packaged. Live imaging of meiotic divisions in condensin-depleted cells showed repeated nuclear stretching and contraction as the chromosomes failed to separate. Condensin depletion also fundamentally altered chromosome arrangement in the polyploid somatic nucleus: multiple copies of homologous chromosomes tended to cluster, consistent with a previous model of condensin suppressing default somatic pairing. We propose that failure to form discrete chromosome territories is the common cause of the defects observed in the absence of condensins.

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Combing Chromosomal DNA Mediated by the SMC Complex: Structure and Mechanisms.

Genome maintenance requires various nucleoid-associated factors in prokaryotes. Among them, the SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) protein has been thought to play a static role in the organization and segregation of the chromosome during cell division. However, recent studies have shown that the bacterial SMC is required to align left and right arms of the emerging chromosome and that the protein dynamically travels from origin to Ter region. A rod form of the SMC complex mediates DNA bridging and has been recognized as a machinery responsible for DNA loop extrusion, like eukaryotic condensin or cohesin complexes, which act as chromosome organizers. Attention is now turning to how the prototype of the complex is loaded on the entry site and translocated on chromosomal DNA, explaining its overall conformational changes at atomic levels. Here, we review and highlight recent findings concerning the prokaryotic SMC complex and discuss possible mechanisms from the viewpoint of protein architecture.

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Topologically associating domains and chromatin loops depend on cohesin and are regulated by CTCF, WAPL, and PDS5 proteins.

Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops. In the absence of WAPL and PDS5 proteins, cohesin forms extended loops, presumably by passing CTCF sites, accumulates in axial chromosomal positions (vermicelli), and condenses chromosomes. Unexpectedly, PDS5 proteins are also required for boundary function. These results show that cohesin has an essential genome-wide function in mediating long-range chromatin interactions and support the hypothesis that cohesin creates these by loop extrusion, until it is delayed by CTCF in a manner dependent on PDS5 proteins, or until it is released from DNA by WAPL.

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Identification of Candidate Casein Kinase 2 Substrates in Mitosis by Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

Protein phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls many aspects of cellular signaling. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a constitutively expressed and active kinase, plays key roles in an array of cellular events including transcription and translation, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. CK2 is implicated in cancerous transformation and is a therapeutic target in anti-cancer therapy. The specific and selective CK2 ATP competitive inhibitor, CX-4945 (silmitaseratib), is currently in phase 2 clinical trials. While many substrates and interactors of CK2 have been identified, less is known about CK2 substrates in mitosis. In the present work, we utilize CX-4945 and quantitative phosphoproteomics to inhibit CK2 activity in mitotically arrested HeLa cells and determine candidate CK2 substrates. We identify 330 phosphorylation sites on 202 proteins as significantly decreased in abundance upon inhibition of CK2 activity. Motif analysis of decreased sites reveals a linear kinase motif with aspartic and glutamic amino acids downstream of the phosphorylated residues, which is consistent with known substrate preferences for CK2. To validate specific candidate CK2 substrates, we perform in vitro kinase assays using purified components. Furthermore, we identified CK2 interacting proteins by affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS). To investigate the biological processes regulated by CK2 in mitosis, we perform network analysis and identify an enrichment of proteins involved in chromosome condensation, chromatin organization, and RNA processing. We demonstrate that overexpression of CK2 in HeLa cells affects proper chromosome condensation. Previously, we found that phosphoprotein phosphatase 6 (PP6), but not phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), opposes CK2 phosphorylation of the condensin I complex, which is essential for chromosome condensation. Here, we extend this observation and demonstrate that PP6 opposition of CK2 is a more general cellular regulatory mechanism.

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A role for the Smc3 hinge domain in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion.

Cohesin is a conserved protein complex required for sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA damage repair, and regulation of transcription. Although cohesin functions to tether DNA duplexes, the contribution of its individual domains to this activity remains poorly understood. We interrogated the Smc3p subunit of cohesin by random insertion mutagenesis. Analysis of a mutant in the Smc3p hinge revealed an unexpected role for this domain in cohesion maintenance and condensation. Further investigation revealed that the Smc3p hinge functions at a step following cohesin's stable binding to chromosomes and independently of Smc3p's regulation by the Eco1p acetyltransferase. Hinge mutant phenotypes resemble loss of Pds5p, which binds opposite the hinge near Smc3p's head domain. We propose that a specific conformation of the Smc3p hinge and Pds5p cooperate to promote cohesion maintenance and condensation.

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Chl1 DNA helicase and Scc2 function in chromosome condensation through cohesin deposition.

Chl1 DNA helicase promotes sister chromatid cohesion and associates with both the cohesion establishment acetyltransferase Eco1/Ctf7 and the DNA polymerase processivity factor PCNA that supports Eco1/Ctf7 function. Mutation in CHL1 results in precocious sister chromatid separation and cell aneuploidy, defects that arise through reduced levels of chromatin-bound cohesins which normally tether together sister chromatids (trans tethering). Mutation of Chl1 family members (BACH1/BRIP/FANCJ and DDX11/ChlR1) also exhibit genotoxic sensitivities, consistent with a role for Chl1 in trans tethering which is required for efficient DNA repair. Chl1 promotes the recruitment of Scc2 to DNA which is required for cohesin deposition onto DNA. There is limited evidence, however, that Scc2 also directs the deposition onto DNA of condensins which promote tethering in cis (intramolecular DNA links). Here, we test the ability of Chl1 to promote cis tethering and the role of both Chl1 and Scc2 to promote condensin recruitment to DNA. The results reveal that chl1 mutant cells exhibit significant condensation defects both within the rDNA locus and genome-wide. Importantly, chl1 mutant cell condensation defects do not result from reduced chromatin binding of condensin, but instead through reduced chromatin binding of cohesin. We tested scc2-4 mutant cells and similarly found no evidence of reduced condensin recruitment to chromatin. Consistent with a role for Scc2 specifically in cohesin deposition, scc2-4 mutant cell condensation defects are irreversible. We thus term Chl1 a novel regulator of both chromatin condensation and sister chromatid cohesion through cohesin-based mechanisms. These results reveal an exciting interface between DNA structure and the highly conserved cohesin complex.

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