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#28934547   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Multifunctional Hybrid Compounds Derived from 2-(2,5-Dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-Methoxypropanamides with Anticonvulsant and Antinociceptive Properties.

The focused set of new pyrrolidine-2,5-diones as potential broad-spectrum hybrid anticonvulsants was described. These derivatives integrate on the common structural scaffold the chemical fragments of well-known antiepileptic drugs such as ethosuximide, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. Such hybrids demonstrated effectiveness in two of the most widely used animal seizure models, namely, the maximal electroshock (MES) test and the psychomotor 6 Hz (32 mA) seizure model. Compound 33 showed the highest anticonvulsant activity in these models (ED50 MES = 79.5 mg/kg, ED50 6 Hz = 22.4 mg/kg). Compound 33 was also found to be effective in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model (ED50 PTZ = 123.2 mg/kg). In addition, 33 demonstrated effectiveness by decreasing pain responses in formalin-induced tonic pain, in capsaicin-induced neurogenic pain, and notably in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. The pharmacological data of stereoisomers of compound 33 revealed greater anticonvulsant activity by R(+)-33 enantiomer in both MES and 6 Hz seizure models.

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#28930174   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Capsaicin Supplementation Improved Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals with Low HDL-C Levels.

Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 42 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the capsaicin (n = 21, 4 mg of capsaicin daily) or to the control group (n = 21, 0.05 mg of capsaicin daily) and consumed two capsaicin or control capsules, which contained the powder of the skin of different peppers, twice daily for three months. Thirty-five subjects completed the trial (18 in the capsaicin group and 17 in the control group). The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, fasting serum HDL-C levels significantly increased to 1.00 ± 0.13 mmol/L from 0.92 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the capsaicin group (p = 0.030), while levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein and phospholipid transfer protein activity moderately decreased (all p < 0.05). Other lipids, apolipoproteins, glucose, and other parameters did not significantly change. In conclusion, capsaicin improved risk factors of CHD in individuals with low HDL-C and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of CHD.

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#28924972   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Targeting nociceptive TRP channels to treat chronic pain: current state of the field.

Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically. TRPV1 antagonists have suffered from side effects related to the channel's role in temperature sensation; however, high dose formulations of capsaicin have reached the market and shown therapeutic utility. A number of potent, small molecule TRPA1 antagonists have recently been advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and TRPM8 antagonists are following closely behind for cold allodynia. TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2 and TRPM3 have also been of significant interest. This review discusses the preclinical promise and status of novel analgesic agents that target TRP channels and the challenges that these compounds may face in development and clinical practice.

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#28915983   2017/09/16 Save this To Up

Single Treatment With Capsaicin 8% Patch May Reduce Pain and Sleep Interference up to 12 Weeks in Patients With Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.


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#28913979   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Physical pain increases interpersonal trust in females.

People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour.

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#28902951   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Brachioradial Pruritus and Notalgia Paraesthetica: A Comparative Observational Study of Clinical Presentation and Morphological Pathologies.

Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) and notalgia paraesthetica (NP) represent 2 of the most common neuropathic itch syndromes. A total of 58 consecutive patients presenting at the Center for Chronic Pruritus, University Hospital Münster, were analysed with regard to clinical presentation, anatomical and morphological pathologies, impairment in quality of life, and response to treatment with topical capsaicin. Patients with BRP reported stinging and burning more often than those with NP. In the BRP group structural magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities more frequently correlated with localization of the symptoms compared with in patients with NP. In addition, intraepidermal nerve fibre density was decreased in lesional skin in patients with BRP, but not in those with NP, confirming the neuropathic origin. Topical capsaicin resulted in a significantly higher alleviation of itch and pain intensity and improvement in quality of life in patients with BRP compared with those with NP, which may reflect clinical and aetiological differences between the conditions.

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#28899508   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Pellitorine, an extract of Tetradium daniellii, is an antagonist of the ion channel TRPV1.

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) confers noxious heat and inflammatory pain signals in the peripheral nervous system. Clinical trial of resiniferatoxin from Euphorbia species is successfully aimed at TRPV1 in cancer pain management and heading toward new selective painkiller status that further validates this target for drug discovery efforts. Evodia species, used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years, are a recognised source of different TRPV1 agonists, but no antagonist has yet been reported.

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#28898491   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

Skin denervation does not alter cortical potentials to surface concentric electrode stimulation: A comparison with laser evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials.

In the neurophysiological assessment of patients with neuropathic pain, laser evoked potentials (LEPs), contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and the evoked potentials by the intraepidermal electrical stimulation via concentric needle electrode are widely agreed as nociceptive specific responses; conversely, the nociceptive specificity of evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs) is still debated.

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#28890700   2017/09/11 Save this To Up

Dietary Capsaicin Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Alters the Gut Microbiota in Obese Diabetic ob/ob Mice.

Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%), or high-capsaicin (0.02%) diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results: Both the low- and high-capsaicin diets failed to prevent the increase in body weight, adiposity index, and Lee's obesity index. However, dietary capsaicin at both the low and high doses significantly inhibited the increase of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. These inhibitory effects were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, dietary capsaicin resulted in remarkable improvement in glucose and insulin tolerance. In addition, neither the low- nor high-capsaicin diet could alter the α-diversity and β-diversity of the gut microbiota. Taxonomy-based analysis showed that both the low- and high-capsaicin diets, acting in similar ways, significantly increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio at the phylum level as well as increased the Roseburia abundance and decreased the Bacteroides and Parabacteroides abundances at the genus level. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that the Roseburia abundance was negatively while the Bacteroides and Parabacteroides abundances were positively correlated to the fasting blood glucose level and area under the curve by the oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, the low- and high-capsaicin diets significantly increased the fecal butyrate and plasma total GLP-1 levels, but decreased plasma total ghrelin, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels as compared with the normal diet. Conclusions: The beneficial effects of dietary capsaicin on glucose homeostasis are likely associated with the alterations of specific bacteria at the genus level. These alterations in bacteria induced by dietary capsaicin contribute to improved glucose homeostasis through increasing short-chain fatty acids, regulating gastrointestinal hormones and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, our results should be interpreted cautiously due to the lower caloric intake at the initial stage after capsaicin diet administration.

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#28888821   2017/09/10 Save this To Up

[(11)C]BCTC: Radiosynthesis and in vivo binding to transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) receptor in the mouse trigeminal nerve.

The purpose of this study was to synthesize a new positron emission tomography radiotracer, N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-[(11)C]carboxamide ([(11)C]BCTC, [(11)C]1), and assess its in vivo binding to the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) receptor in mice. [(11)C]BCTC was synthesized by reacting the hydrochloride of 4-tertiarybutylaniline (2·HCl) with [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl2) to give isocyanate [(11)C]4, followed by reaction with 4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine (3). [(11)C]BCTC was obtained at a 16-20% radiochemical yield, based on the cyclotron-produced [(11)C]CO2 (decay-corrected to the end of bombardment), with >98% radiochemical purity and 65-110GBq/μmol specific activity at the end of synthesis. An ex vivo biodistribution study in mice confirmed the specific binding of [(11)C]BCTC to TRPV1 in the trigeminal nerve, which is a tissue with high TRPV1 expression.

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