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#26824938   2016/03/26 Save this To Up

Aminophthalocyanine-Mediated Photodynamic Inactivation of Leishmania tropica.

Photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. requires the cellular uptake of photosensitizers, e.g., endocytosis of silicon(IV)-phthalocyanines (PC) axially substituted with bulky ligands. We report here that when substituted with amino-containing ligands, the PCs (PC1 and PC2) were endocytosed and displayed improved potency againstLeishmania tropicapromastigotes and axenic amastigotesin vitro The uptake of these PCs by bothLeishmaniastages followed saturation kinetics, as expected. Sensitive assays were developed for assessing the photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. by rendering them fluorescent in two ways: transfecting promastigotes to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and loading them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). PC-sensitizedLeishmania tropicastrains were seen microscopically to lose their motility, structural integrity, and GFP/CFSE fluorescence after exposure to red light (wavelength, ∼650 nm) at a fluence of 1 to 2 J cm(-2) Quantitative fluorescence assays based on the loss of GFP/CFSE from liveLeishmania tropicashowed that PC1 and PC2 dose dependently sensitized both stages for photoinactivation, consistent with the results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay.Leishmania tropicastrains are >100 times more sensitive than their host cells or macrophages to PC1- and PC2-mediated photoinactivation, judging from the estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of these cells. Axial substitution of the PC with amino groups instead of other ligands appears to increase its leishmanial photolytic activity by up to 40-fold. PC1 and PC2 are thus potentially useful for photodynamic therapy of leishmaniasis and for oxidative photoinactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. for use as vaccines or vaccine carriers.

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DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Ofloxacin CAS Number [824

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#24947270   2014/07/15 Save this To Up

Cell pairing using microwell array electrodes based on dielectrophoresis.

We report a simple device with an array of 10,000 (100 × 100) microwells for producing vertical pairs of cells in individual microwells with a rapid manipulation based on positive dielectrophoresis (p-DEP). The areas encircled with micropoles which fabricated from an electrical insulating photosensitive polymer were used as microwells. The width (14 μm) and depth (25 μm) of the individual microwells restricted the size to two vertically aligned cells. The DEP device for the manipulation of cells consisted of a microfluidic channel with an upper indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and a lower microwell array electrode fabricated on an ITO substrate. Mouse myeloma cells stained in green were trapped within 1 s in the microwells by p-DEP by applying an alternating current voltage between the upper ITO and the lower microwell array electrode. The cells were retained inside the wells even after switching off the voltage and washing with a fluidic flow. Other myeloma cells stained in blue were then trapped in the microwells occupied by the cells stained in green to form the vertical cell pairing in the microwells. Cells stained in different colors were paired within only 1 min and a pairing efficiency of over 50% was achieved.

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#24497977   2014/02/05 Save this To Up

Imaging circulating tumor cells in freely moving awake small animals using a miniaturized intravital microscope.

Metastasis, the cause for 90% of cancer mortality, is a complex and poorly understood process involving the invasion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into blood vessels. These cells have potential prognostic value as biomarkers for early metastatic risk. But their rarity and the lack of specificity and sensitivity in measuring them render their interrogation by current techniques very challenging. How and when these cells are circulating in the blood, on their way to potentially give rise to metastasis, is a question that remains largely unanswered. In order to provide an insight into this "black box" using non-invasive imaging, we developed a novel miniature intravital microscopy (mIVM) strategy capable of real-time long-term monitoring of CTCs in awake small animals. We established an experimental 4T1-GL mouse model of metastatic breast cancer, in which tumor cells express both fluorescent and bioluminescent reporter genes to enable both single cell and whole body tumor imaging. Using mIVM, we monitored blood vessels of different diameters in awake mice in an experimental model of metastasis. Using an in-house software algorithm we developed, we demonstrated in vivo CTC enumeration and computation of CTC trajectory and speed. These data represent the first reported use we know of for a miniature mountable intravital microscopy setup for in vivo imaging of CTCs in awake animals.

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#24203624   2013/11/08 Save this To Up

Monitoring cell proliferation in vitro with different cellular fluorescent dyes.

There are few methods for quantifying cell proliferation. Those tests describe the proliferation kinetics of a cell population, but they do not report the history of single cells, the number and frequency of cell divisions, or the precursor cell frequency. Cell-tracking assays based on dilution of the green fluorescent protein labelling dye, CFSE, has become the standard for monitoring cell proliferation. Other labelling dyes, e.g. CellTrace Violet and CellVue Claret, are also used for the same purpose. This study aimed to compare these three cell labelling methods for analysing the kinetics of cell viability, proliferation, and precursor cell frequency. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA) were used as a model system. After labelling with a cell-tracking dye cells were divided into groups with and without ConA stimulation. From the 5th to 8th day, cells were collected and analysed with flow cytometry. Cell viability was not significantly different between labelled and unlabelled cells that received ConA stimulation. The proliferative fraction, proliferation index, and nonproliferative fraction were not significantly different among lymphocytes labelled with different dyes. Precursor cell frequency was also similar among cells labelled with the three cell-tracing dyes. The practical conclusion from our observations is that the results from cells labelled with different tracers may be compared directly and discussed jointly.

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#23544110   2013/04/01 Save this To Up

Increased antigen specific T cell numbers in the absence of altered migration or division rates as a result of mucosal cholera toxin administration.

Cholera toxin (CT) is a mucosal adjuvant capable of inducing strong immune responses to co-administered antigens following oral or intranasal immunization of mice. To date, the direct effect of CT on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell migration and proliferation profiles in vivo is not well characterized. In this study, the effect of CT on the migration pattern and proliferative responses of adoptively transferred, CD4(+) TCR transgenic T cells in orally or intranasally vaccinated mice, was analyzed by flow cytometry. GFP-expressing or CFSE-labeled OT-II lymphocytes were adoptively transferred to naïve C57BL/6 mice, and mice were subsequently vaccinated with OVA with or without CT via the oral or intranasal route. CT did not alter the migration pattern of antigen-specific T cells, regardless of the route of immunization, but increased the number of transgenic CD4(+) T cells in draining lymphoid tissue. This increase in the number of transgenic CD4(+) T cells was not due to cells undergoing more rounds of cellular division in vivo, suggesting that CT may exert an indirect adjuvant effect on CD4(+) T cells. The findings reported here suggest that CT functions as a mucosal adjuvant by increasing the number of antigen specific CD4(+) T cells independent of their migration pattern or kinetics of cellular division.

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#22178869   2012/02/20 Save this To Up

Application of mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow transplantation for sensitized recipients.

Sensitized patients are at high risk for graft rejection during transplantation. It is of interest to investigate the effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in sensitized hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. MSCs were generated from bone marrow cells of BALB/c mice. The molecular markers of MSCs were detected by flow cytometry. MSCs labeled with green fluorescent dye were transplanted into nonsensitized and sensitized recipients, respectively. Homing of MSCs in vivo was monitored at different time points post-transplantation. Additionally, sensitized BALB/c mice under irradiation were transplanted with syngeneic MSCs and allogeneic bone marrow cells, and the rate of survival was monitored daily. The fourth passage of MSCs presented a typical spindle-shaped morphology and met the identification criteria of MSCs. Forty-eight hours post-transplantation, the homing of MSCs was found mainly in the bone morrow of nonsensitized recipients and the spleen of sensitized recipients, respectively. Moreover, all of the sensitized recipients died 12-16 days after receiving syngeneic MSCs and allogeneic bone marrow cells, with a median of 14 days. Our results suggest that the MSCs mainly homed to the spleen of sensitized recipients post-transplantation. MSCs could not enhance the engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow cells in sensitized recipients.

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#21664378   2011/08/22 Save this To Up

Use of SNARF-1 to measure murine T cell proliferation in vitro and its application in a novel regulatory T cell suppression assay.

The green fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) has been used to track the proliferation of T cells in vitro. Such assays often incorporate more than one population of cells, but the paucity of alternative, spectrally distinct dyes suitable for measuring proliferation has hampered the simultaneous tracking of multiple cell populations; furthermore, CFSE is not compatible with green fluorescent protein (GFP), used to identify T cells in various transgenic mice. We have therefore validated the use of the far red dye seminaphthorhodafluor-1 (SNARF)-1 - originally developed to measure intracellular pH - to track murine T cell proliferation in vitro, demonstrating its ability to distinguish multiple cycles of proliferation over three days in a similar fashion to CFSE. The small changes in fluorescence emission attributed to intracellular alkalinisation of proliferating T cells have minimal impact on the ability of SNARF-1 to track cell division and this dye induces minimal cell death at the concentration used in this application. On the basis of these results, we have developed a novel in vitro murine T cell suppression assay, in which the proliferation of both conventional T cells (Tcons) stained with SNARF-1 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) stained with CFSE can be measured simultaneously. We have also demonstrated that SNARF-1 may be used to stain Tcons in assays of suppression involving 'designer' Tregs, generated by the transduction of CD4(+) T cells with constructs encoding the Foxp3(gfp) fusion protein.

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#21518571   2011/04/26 Save this To Up

Tracking of CFSE-labeled endothelial progenitor cells in laser-injured mouse retina.

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic retinopathy. The current study aimed to establish a simple, reliable and fluorescent labeling method for tracking EPCs with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in laser-injured mouse retina.

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#21330325   2011/05/02 Save this To Up

T-lymphoid differentiation potential measured in vitro is higher in CD34+CD38-/lo hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood than from bone marrow and is an intrinsic property of the cells.

Human bone marrow and umbilical cord blood are sources of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, which is a life-saving treatment in a variety of diseases but is burdened by delayed T-cell reconstitution. Observational studies evaluating T-cell reconstitution in post-transplant recipients suggest that cord blood hematopoietic stem cells have a more effective capacity for T-cell reconstitution. This study focuses on the comparison of the capacity of cord blood and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells to generate T cells in vitro.

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#20872885   2010/10/26 Save this To Up

An adaptable two-color flow cytometric assay to quantitate the invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

Plasmodium falciparum genotyping has recently undergone a revolution, and genome-wide genotype datasets are now being collected for large numbers of parasite isolates. By contrast, phenotyping technologies have lagged behind, with few high throughput phenotyping platforms available. Invasion of human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum is a phenotype of particular interest because of its central role in parasite development. Invasion is a variable phenotype influenced by natural genetic variation in both the parasite and host and is governed by multiple overlapping and in some instances redundant parasite-erythrocyte interactions. To facilitate the scale-up of erythrocyte invasion phenotyping, we have developed a novel platform based on two-color flow cytometry that distinguishes parasite invasion from parasite growth. Target cells that had one or more receptors removed using enzymatic treatment were prelabeled with intracellular dyes CFDA-SE or DDAO-SE, incubated with P. falciparum parasites, and parasites that had invaded either labeled or unlabeled cells were detected with fluorescent DNA-intercalating dyes Hoechst 33342 or SYBR Green I. Neither cell label interfered with erythrocyte invasion, and the combination of cell and parasite dyes recapitulated known invasion phenotypes for three standard laboratory strains. Three different dye combinations with minimal overlap have been validated, meaning the same assay can be adapted to instruments harboring several different combinations of laser lines. The assay is sensitive, operates in a 96-well format, and can be used to quantitate the impact of natural or experimental genetic variation on erythrocyte invasion efficiency.

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