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CRISPR/Cas9 generated human CD46, CD55 and CD59 knockout cell lines as a tool for complement research.

To prevent unwanted complement activation and subsequent damage, complement activation must be tightly regulated on healthy host cells. Dysregulation of the complement system contributes to the pathology of diseases like Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. To investigate complement regulator deficiencies, primary patient cells may be used, but access to patient cells may be limited and cells are heterogeneous between different patients. To inhibit regulator function on healthy host cells, blocking antibodies can be used, though it may be difficult to exclude antibody-mediated effects. To circumvent these issues, we created single and combined complement regulator human knockout cells to be able to in vitro investigate complement activation and regulation on human cells.

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Identifying the role of complement in triggering neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury.

The complement system is implicated in promoting acute secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its role in chronic post-traumatic neuropathology remains unclear. Using various injury-site targeted complement inhibitors that block different complement pathways and activation products, we investigated how complement is involved in neurodegeneration and chronic neuroinflammation after TBI in a clinically relevant setting of complement inhibition. The current paradigm is that complement propagates post-TBI neuropathology predominantly through the terminal membrane attack complex (MAC), but the focus has been on acute outcomes. Following controlled cortical impact in adult male mice, we demonstrate that while inhibition of the MAC (with CR2-CD59) reduces acute deficits, inhibition of C3 activation is required to prevent chronic inflammation and ongoing neuronal loss. Activation of C3 triggered a sustained degenerative mechanism of microglial and astrocyte activation, reduced dendritic and synaptic density, and inhibited neuroblast migration several weeks after TBI. Moreover, inhibiting all complement pathways (with CR2-Crry), or only the alternative complement pathway (with CR2-fH), provided similar and significant improvements in chronic histological, cognitive and functional recovery, indicating a key role for the alternative pathway in propagating chronic post-TBI pathology. Although we confirm a role for the MAC in acute neuronal loss after TBI, this study shows that upstream products of complement activation generated predominantly via the alternative pathway propagate chronic neuroinflammation, thus challenging the current concept that the MAC represents a therapeutic target for treating TBI. A humanized version of CR2fH has been shown to be safe and non-immunogenic in clinical trials.Complement, and specifically the terminal membrane attack complex, has been implicated in secondary injury and neuronal loss after TBI. However, we demonstrate here that upstream complement activation products, generated predominantly via the alternative pathway, are responsible for propagating chronic inflammation and injury following CCI. Chronic inflammatory microgliosis is triggered by sustained complement activation after CCI, and is associated with chronic loss of neurons, dendrites and synapses, a process that continues to occur even 30 days after initial impact. Acute and injury-site targeted inhibition of the alternative pathway significantly improves chronic outcomes, and together these findings modify the conceptual paradigm for targeting the complement system to treat TBI.

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Measurement of soluble CD59 in CSF in demyelinating disease: Evidence for an intrathecal source of soluble CD59.

CD59, a broadly expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, is the principal cell inhibitor of complement membrane attack on cells. In the demyelinating disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), elevated complement protein levels, including soluble CD59 (sCD59), were reported in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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High complement levels in astrocyte-derived exosomes of Alzheimer's disease.

Astrocytes fulfill neuronal trophic roles normally, but are transformed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) into A1-type reactive astrocytes that may destroy neurons through unknown mechanisms.

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Reduced Expression of Membrane Complement Regulatory Protein CD59 on Leukocytes following Lung Transplantation.

Cellular protection against undesired effects of complement activation is provided by expression of membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins including CD59. This protein prevents membrane attack complex formation and is considered to be involved in graft accommodation. Also, CD59 downregulates CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation. It is unknown whether CD59 expression is affected by transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative CD59 antigen expression on distinct leukocyte subsets following lung transplantation ( = 26) and to investigate whether this differs from pretransplantation ( = 9). The results show that CD59 expression on leukocytes is significantly lower posttransplantation compared with healthy controls ( = 0.002) and pretransplantation ( < 0.0001). Moreover, the CD59 expression diminishes posttransplantation on all distinct lymphocyte subsets ( < 0.02). This effect appeared to be specific for CD59 since the expression of other surface markers remained stable or inclined following transplantation. The highest antigen expression posttransplantation was observed on CD4+ T cells and monocytes ( ≤ 0.002). These findings show that CD59 expression on leukocytes diminishes posttransplantation, which could result in decreased resistance against complement and enhanced T-cell activation. If such reduction in CD59 expression also occurs on endothelial cells from the transplanted organ, this could lead to a change into a prothrombotic and proinflammatory phenotype.

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Value of CD16/CD66b/CD45 in comparison to CD55/CD59/CD45 in diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: An Indian experience.

Diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare haematopoietic stem cell disorder, is challenging in patients with bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome like aplastic anaemia (AA). This study was conducted with the aim to test the efficacy of the newly recommended markers viz. anti-CD16 and CD66b antibody over the existing anti-CD55 and CD59 antibody for PNH diagnosis in India.

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High-throughput immunophenotypic characterization of bone marrow- and cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells reveals common and differentially expressed markers: identification of angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) as a marker differentially expressed between adult and perinatal tissue sources.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a heterogeneous population of multipotent progenitors used in the clinic because of their immunomodulatory properties and their ability to differentiate into multiple mesodermal lineages. Although bone marrow (BM) remains the most common MSC source, cord blood (CB) can be collected noninvasively and without major ethical concerns. Comparative studies comprehensively characterizing the MSC phenotype across several tissue sources are still lacking. This study provides a 246-antigen immunophenotypic analysis of BM- and CB-derived MSC aimed at identifying common and strongly expressed MSC markers as well as the existence of discriminating markers between the two sources.

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Revealing the Raft Domain Organization in the Plasma Membrane by Single-Molecule Imaging of Fluorescent Ganglioside Analogs.

Gangliosides have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, particularly in the formation and function of raft domains in the plasma membrane. However, the scarcity of suitable fluorescent ganglioside analogs had long prevented us from determining exactly how gangliosides perform their functions in the live-cell plasma membrane. With the development of new fluorescent ganglioside analogs, as described by Komura et al. (2017), this barrier has been broken. We can now address the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides in the live-cell plasma membrane, using fluorescence microscopy, particularly by single-fluorescent molecule imaging and tracking. Single-molecule tracking of fluorescent GM1 and GM3 revealed that these molecules are transiently and dynamically recruited to monomers (monomer-associated rafts) and homodimer rafts of the raftophilic GPI-anchored protein CD59 in quiescent cells, with exponential residency times of 12 and 40ms, respectively, in a manner dependent on raft-lipid interactions. Upon CD59 stimulation, which induces CD59-cluster signaling rafts, the fluorescent GM1 and GM3 analogs were recruited to the signaling rafts, with a lifetime of 48ms. These results represent the first direct evidence that GPI-anchored receptors and gangliosides interact in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, they show that gangliosides continually move in and out of rafts that contain CD59 in an extremely dynamic manner, with much higher frequency than expected previously. Such studies would not have been possible without fluorescent ganglioside probes, which exhibit native-like behavior and single-molecule tracking. In this chapter, we review the methods for single-molecule tracking of fluorescent ganglioside analogs and the results obtained by applying these methods.

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Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment increases the Pig-a mutant frequency in peripheral blood from severely malnourished rats.

Severe malnutrition is a complex condition that increases susceptibility to infections. Thus, drugs are extensively used in malnutrition cases. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenic effects of combined trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment in undernourished (UN) and well-nourished (WN) rats. Six-week-old UN and WN Han-Wistar rats were treated with TMP-SMX at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg/d TMP and 50 mg/kg/d SMX for 5 or 10 days. Blood was collected from the tail vein one day before (day -1) and 15, 30, and 45 days after TMP-SMX administration. The Pig-a mutant frequencies (MFs) in peripheral blood reticulocytes (RETs) and erythrocytes (RBCs) were measured through flow cytometry. Severe malnutrition increased the basal MFs in RETs (RET CD59-) and RBC (RBCs CD59-). These findings support the hypothesis that severe malnutrition is mutagenic even in the absence of exposure to an exogenous mutagen. UN and WN rats treated for 5 or 10 consecutive days with TMP-SMX had significantly increased and sustained Pig-a mutant frequencies, demonstrating the mutagenic effects of this drug.

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Potential impact of complement regulator deficiencies on hemolytic reactions due to minor ABO-mismatched transfusions.

Minor ABO-mismatched transfusions are a common occurrence, although infrequent transfusion reactions occur. We sought to investigate the regulation of complement C3 activation induced by anti-A. In vitro complement C3 activation was observed with 10 of 30 group O samples and correlated with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-A titers. We developed an in vitro paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) model of hemolysis in which group A1 red blood cells (RBCs) were chemically treated with 2-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) to alter regulators of complement C3 activation. Intravascular hemolysis was simulated by incubating an IgG nonhemolytic group O plasma (titer = 32) with A1 RBCs. IgG was detected on the RBCs, but hemolysis was observed with AET-treated RBCs only. When treated and untreated RBCs were tested together (1:4), we determined that the failure to observe C3b/d deposition on RBCs was due to the complete hemolysis of the AET-treated minor RBC population. A group O patient with a 9% CD59-deficient PNH clone was sensitized with an IgM anti-I. Hemolysis, with a weak positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) resulting from C3b/d, was observed after incubation with fresh AB serum. Flow cytometry showed an 86% reduction of the PNH clone. Our work indicates that the transfusion of minor ABO-mismatched plasma could cause hemolysis with a negative DAT C3b/d. We propose that the presence of a PNH clone is 1 possible cause of unexplained anemia for recipients of ABO-mismatched product. This work suggests that other acquired or inherited defects of decay-accelerating factor and membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis could be responsible for infrequent but clinically important hemolysis after ABO-mismatched transfusions.

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