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CD47 is a novel potent immunotherapy target in human malignancies: current studies and future promises.

Recently, many immunosuppressive checkpoints such as PD-L1, CTLA-4 and CD47, were identified in succession and serve as potential immunotherapy targets in human cancers. Among them, CD47, a 'marker-of-self' protein that is overexpressed broadly across tumor types, is emerging as a novel potent macrophage immune checkpoint for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we highlight the prominent role of CD47 as a 'don't-eat-me' signal that inhibits macrophage phagocytosis for immune evasion of a tumor and presents the opportunities and challenges for CD47 inhibitors both as monotherapy and in combination treatments for hematological cancers and solid tumors; some of these agents are currently in clinical trials.

1405 related Products with: CD47 is a novel potent immunotherapy target in human malignancies: current studies and future promises.

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pH protective Y receptor ligand functionalized antiphagocytosis BPLP-WPU micelles for enhanced tumor imaging and therapy with prolonged survival time.

Nanoparticle-based tumor therapies are extensively studied; however, few are capable of improving patient survival time due to premature drug leakage, off target effects, and poor tissue penetration. Previously, we successfully synthesized a novel family of Y receptor (YR) ligand modified, photoluminescent BPLP nanobubbles and nanoparticles for targeted breast cancer ultrasound imaging; however, increased accumulation could also be observed in the liver, kidney, and spleen, suggesting significant interaction of the particles with macrophages in vivo. Herein, for the first time, we imparted antiphagocytosis capability to YR ligand functionalized BPLP-WPU polymeric micelles through the incorporation of a CD47 human glycoprotein based self-peptide. Application of self-peptide modified, DOX loaded micelles in vivo resulted in a 100% survival rate and complete tumor necrosis over 100 days of treatment. In vivo imaging of SPION loaded, self-peptide modified micelles revealed effective targeting to the tumor site while analysis of iron content demonstrated reduced particle accumulation in the liver and kidney, demonstrating reduced macrophage interaction, as well as a 2-fold increase of particles in the tumor. As these results demonstrate, YR ligand, self-peptide modified BPLP-WPU micelles are capable of target specific cancer treatment and imaging, making them ideal candidates to improve survival rate and tumor reduction clinically.

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Anti-CD47 treatment enhances anti-tumor T-cell immunity and improves immunosuppressive environment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is considered as an immunosuppressive disease, with impaired tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and increased suppressive immune cells. The efficacy of CD47 antibodies in immune checkpoint therapy is not clearly understood in HNSCC. In this study, human tissue microarrays and immunocompetent transgenic mouse models were used to explore the expression of CD47 and the use of CD47 antibodies in HNSCC. We identified overexpression of CD47 in HNSCC as compared with the control normal human tissue and also in HNSCC mouse models. The expression of CD47 also correlated with clinicopathological parameters as well as outcome. Furthermore, inhibition of CD47 delayed tumor growth and improved tumor microenvironment by stimulating effector T cells and decreasing suppressive immune cells and regulating the function of CD11b Ly6G MDSC. Our data suggest that CD47 blockade may be a potential immunotherapeutic target in human HNSCC.

1949 related Products with: Anti-CD47 treatment enhances anti-tumor T-cell immunity and improves immunosuppressive environment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

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CD47 is a direct target of SNAI1 and ZEB1 and its blockade activates the phagocytosis of breast cancer cells undergoing EMT.

We report that CD47 was upregulated in different EMT-activated human breast cancer cells versus epithelial MCF7 cells. Overexpression of SNAI1 or ZEB1 in epithelial MCF7 cells activated EMT and upregulated CD47 while siRNA-mediated targeting of SNAI1 or ZEB1 in mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells reversed EMT and strongly decreased CD47. Mechanistically, SNAI1 and ZEB1 upregulated CD47 by binding directly to E-boxes in the human CD47 promoter. TCGA and METABRIC data sets from breast cancer patients revealed that CD47 correlated with SNAI1 and Vimentin. At functional level, different EMT-activated breast cancer cells were less efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages vs. MCF7 cells. The phagocytosis of EMT-activated cells was rescued by using CD47 blocking antibody or by genetic targeting of SNAI1, ZEB1 or CD47. These results provide a rationale for an innovative preclinical combination immunotherapy based on PD-1/PD-L1 and CD47 blockade along with EMT inhibitors in patients with highly aggressive, mesenchymal, and metastatic breast cancer.

2146 related Products with: CD47 is a direct target of SNAI1 and ZEB1 and its blockade activates the phagocytosis of breast cancer cells undergoing EMT.

Mouse Anti-Human CD34 Tar MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Breast cancer membrane pr serologically defined col NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr

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Effect of tropical thermal stress on peri-implantation immune responses in cows.

Pregnancy losses during the peri-implantation period cause a negative impact on the reproductive and economic performance of dairy herds. In this study, we investigated the possible immunological factors which may contribute to pregnancy loss during the peri-implantation period under different seasons of tropical conditions. Eighteen Karan Fries cows, six cows in each season (W: winter; HH: hot-humid; HD: hot-dry) were selected. These cows exhibited heat and were brought for artificial insemination (AI; day 0). Blood was collected on days 0, 10, 14, 16, 18, 21 and 28 post-AI. Pregnancy was confirmed by non-return to heat, progesterone assay and ultrasonography. Blood neutrophils were isolated and tested for their number, myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations and expression of cell adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD14, CD25, CD47), interferon tau stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, OAS1) and chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CCL2). Plasma cortisol, progesterone, IL-2 and IL-10 were also estimated. Neutrophil number, MPO levels, the relative expression of various neutrophil receptors and plasma IL-2 were low between days 14-21 post-AI in all seasons. However, plasma cortisol and IL-10 were higher during the same period. The inflammatory activity of neutrophils, plasma IL-2 and cortisol were highest in HH, intermediate in HD and lowest in W season. However, plasma progesterone and IL-10 were highest in W season and lowest in HH season. Our results show that blood neutrophils sense the implanting embryo and downregulate their activity to ensure successful implantation; however, under harsh environmental conditions, it is a great challenge for the immune system to maintain such balance and thus it may negatively affect the outcome of pregnancy.

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The impact of circulating preeclampsia-associated extracellular vesicles on the migratory activity and phenotype of THP-1 monocytic cells.

Intercellular communication via extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their target cells, especially immune cells, results in functional and phenotype changes that consequently may play a significant role in various physiological states and the pathogenesis of immune-mediated disorders. Monocytes are the most prominent environment-sensing immune cells in circulation, skilled to shape their microenvironments via cytokine secretion and further differentiation. Both the circulating monocyte subset distribution and the blood plasma EV pattern are characteristic for preeclampsia, a pregnancy induced immune-mediated hypertensive disorder. We hypothesized that preeclampsia-associated EVs (PE-EVs) induced functional and phenotypic alterations of monocytes. First, we proved EV binding and uptake by THP-1 cells. Cellular origin and protein cargo of circulating PE-EVs were characterized by flow cytometry and mass spectrometry. An altered phagocytosis-associated molecular pattern was found on 12.5 K fraction of PE-EVs: an elevated CD47 "don't eat me" signal (p < 0.01) and decreased exofacial phosphatidylserine "eat-me" signal (p < 0.001) were found along with decreased uptake of these PE-EVs (p < 0.05). The 12.5 K fraction of PE-EVs induced significantly lower chemotaxis (p < 0.01) and cell motility but accelerated cell adhesion of THP-1 cells (p < 0.05). The 12.5 K fraction of PE-EVs induced altered monocyte functions suggest that circulating EVs may have a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

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A novel bispecific antibody fusion protein co-targeting EGFR and CD47 with enhanced therapeutic index.

To promote targeting specificity of anti-CD47 agents, we have constructed a novel bispecific antibody fusion protein against EGFR and CD47, which may minimize the "off-target" effects caused by CD47 expression on red blood cells.

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Overhydrated stomatocytosis associated with a complex genotype including a novel mutation.

Overhydrated stomatocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder known to cause variably severe haemolytic anaemia due to heterozygous mutations in the gene. We report a 26-year-old man with recurring jaundice, splenohepatomegaly and mild chronic haemolytic anaemia with significant stomatocytosis. Extensive haemolytic work-up including flow cytometry for eosin-5'-maleimide and CD47 expression levels was carried out. Targeted resequencing revealed two probably causative heterozygous mutations in (Leu336Ser and Ile149Met) and one heterozygous mutation in (Glu1046Lys) involvement was confirmed by decreased RhAG macrocomplex component indicated by the reduced CD47 expression on erythrocytes. analysis concordantly flagged :Leu336Ser and :Glu1046Lys as likely deleterious mutation, whereas :Ile149Met was reported as likely neutral by PROVEAN. Family screening by Sanger sequencing revealed :Leu336Ser in a mother and :Glu1046Lys in a father who were both asymptomatic, excluding them as causative dominant events, thus establishing :Ile149Met, novel mutation as probably causative. This case illustrates the importance of family screening in interpreting next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, as in silico analysis alone can be misleading. Erudite generation of diagnostic possibilities based on a thorough baseline clinical and laboratory work-up remains as important as ever, even as NGS brings about a paradigm shift in the diagnostic work-up of rare haemolytic anaemias.

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Disrupting CD47-SIRPα axis alone or combined with autophagy depletion for the therapy of glioblastoma.

CD47-targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors have been investigated for immunotherapy of several cancers, glioblastoma, one of the most common tumors in brain, was still a challenge for CD47-targeting therapy. Herein, we reported novel strategies for glioblastoma therapy via blocking CD47-SIRPα by SIRPα-Fc alone or in combination with autophagy inhibition. Our results showed that SIRPα-Fc increased macrophages-triggered cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of glioblastoma cells then elicited potent anti-tumor efficacy. During the treatment, SIRPα-Fc induced autophagy and autophagic flux in glioblastoma cells and Akt/mTOR inactivation was participated in the autophagy activation. Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological agents or small interfering RNA increased SIRPα-Fc-triggered macrophage phagocytosis and cytotoxicity. Importantly, when compared with SIRPα-Fc treatment, blocking both CD47/SIRPα and autophagy significantly increased infiltration of macrophages and apoptosis of tumor cells, triggering potentiated anti-glioblastoma effect and extended median survival. Further experiments showed that adaptive immune response, including CD8+ T-cell subsets, was also played a crucial role in SIRPα-Fc-induced glioblastoma rejection. Our results indicated that SIRPα-Fc alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors elicited potent anti-glioblastoma effect, highlighting potential therapeutic strategies of glioblastoma via blocking CD47/SIRPα alone or in combination with autophagy inhibitor.

2623 related Products with: Disrupting CD47-SIRPα axis alone or combined with autophagy depletion for the therapy of glioblastoma.

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CD47 expression in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: coexistence with tumor immunity lowering the ratio of CD8/Foxp3 T cells.

Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) frequently harbors dense lymphocytic infiltration, suggesting a specific microenvironment allowing coexistence with tumor immunity. CD47, which mediates the "do not eat me" signal in innate immunity, is also important in adaptive anti-tumor immunity. We investigated the significance of CD47 in EBVaGC compared with EBV-negative gastric cancer and the correlation with various immune cells. By immunohistochemistry of CD47, high, low, and negative expression was observed in 24, 63, and 12% of EBVaGC (n = 41), while 11, 49, and 39% of EBV-negative gastric cancer (n = 262), respectively, indicating that high expression of CD47 in cancer cells was significantly frequent and increased in EBVaGC (P = 0.043). In contrast to EBV-negative gastric carcinoma in which no significant correlation was observed between CD47 and survival, high expression of CD47 correlated significantly with worse disease-specific survival (P = 0.011) and overall survival (P = 0.013) in EBVaGC. To further clarify the role of CD47 expression in EBVaGC, digital image analysis of immune cell infiltration revealed that high CD47 expression was correlated with a lower ratio of CD8/Foxp3 T cells (P = 0.021), a sensitive indicator of tumor immunity. Thus, CD47 lowers anti-tumor immunity in EBVaGC by finely tuning profile of infiltrating T cells, suggesting that CD47 is an additional target for cancer immunotherapy against this virus-driven gastric cancer.

2072 related Products with: CD47 expression in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: coexistence with tumor immunity lowering the ratio of CD8/Foxp3 T cells.

Human Epstein-Barr Virus Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus GI cancer (esophageal, ga Tissue array of gastritis Gastric carcinoma, gastri Multiple organ tumor tiss Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru Native Parainfluenza Viru

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