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Trajectory of inflammatory and microglial activation markers in the postnatal rabbit brain following intrauterine endotoxin exposure.

Maternal infection is a risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy (CP) in neonates. We have previously demonstrated hypomyelination and motor deficits in newborn rabbits, as seen in patients with cerebral palsy, following maternal intrauterine endotoxin administration. This was associated with increased microglial activation, primarily involving the periventricular region (PVR). In this study we hypothesized that maternal intrauterine inflammation leads to a pro-inflammatory environment in the PVR that is associated with microglial activation in the first 2 postnatal weeks.

2807 related Products with: Trajectory of inflammatory and microglial activation markers in the postnatal rabbit brain following intrauterine endotoxin exposure.

Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Gro g Macrophage In Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr

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Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS).

2749 related Products with: Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye.

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu BACTERIOLOGY BACTEROIDES TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the

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A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for the treatment of glaucoma patients.

1987 related Products with: A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Multiple organ tumor tiss Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti ING1B antisense HIV 1 intergase antigen. Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon

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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers expressed in circulating tumour cells of early and metastatic breast cancer patients.

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered an essential process in the metastatic cascade. EMT is characterised by upregulation of vimentin, Twist, Snail, Slug and Sip1 among others. Metastasis is also associated with the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells in the blood and bone marrow, respectively, of breast cancer patients, but the expression of EMT markers in these cells has not been reported so far.

1596 related Products with: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers expressed in circulating tumour cells of early and metastatic breast cancer patients.

Breast cancer and matched Breast cancer and matched Breast cancer and matched Breast cancer tissue arra Top 4 types of cancer (co Top 4 types of cancer (co Recombinant Human Interfe Top five cancer tissue ar Breast cancer tissue arra Breast cancer (IDC) tissu Breast cancer and adjacen Breast cancer tissue arra

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Polyquad-preserved travoprost/timolol, benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved travoprost/timolol, and latanoprost/timolol in fixed combinations: a rabbit ocular surface study.

The aim of this study was to use a validated acute rabbit model to test the toxicity of a novel formulation of fixed-combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution, which contains the antimicrobial preservative polyquaternium-1 (PQ), compared with the commercial formulation of fixed combinations travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution and latanoprost 0.005%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution, which both contain the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK).

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Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Interferon-a Receptor Typ Rabbit Anti-Inf A Neurami Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H

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New concepts of IL-10-induced lung fibrosis: fibrocyte recruitment and M2 activation in a CCL2/CCR2 axis.

IL-10 is most commonly recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine possessing immunosuppressive effects necessary for regulated resolution of proinflammation. However, its role in the development of fibrosis during inflammatory resolution has not been clear. Few prior studies have linked IL-10 with the inhibition of fibrosis principally on the basis of regulating inflammation thought to be driving fibroproliferation. In contrast, in a model of long-term overexpression of IL-10, we observed marked induction of lung fibrosis in mice. The total cell number retrieved by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) increased 10-fold in the IL-10 overexpression (IL-10 OE) mice, with significant infiltration of T and B lymphocytes and collagen-producing cells. The presence of increased fibrocytes, isolated from collagenase-digested lungs, was identified by flow cytometry using dual staining of CD45 and collagen 1. Quantitative PCR analysis on an array of chemokine/chemokine receptor genes showed that receptor CCR2 and its ligand, CCL2, were highly upregulated in IL-10 OE mice, suggesting that IL-10-induced fibrocyte recruitment was CCL2/CCR2 specific. Given the prior association of alternatively activated (M(2)) macrophages with development of fibrosis in other disease states, we also examined the effect of IL-10 OE on the M(2) macrophage axis. We observed significantly increased numbers of M(2) macrophages in both BAL and whole lung tissue from the IL-10 OE mice. Administration of rabbit anti-CCL2 antiserum to IL-10 OE mice for three consecutive weeks significantly decreased fibrosis as evidenced by lung hydroxyproline content, compared with mice that received preimmune rabbit serum. These results indicate that overexpression of IL-10 induces fibrosis, in part, by fibrocyte recruitment and M(2) macrophage activation, and likely in a CCL2/CCR2 axis.

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Rat Anti-Mouse Interleuki Rat Anti-Mouse Interleuki Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Recombinant Rat Interleuk Recombinant Porcine Inter Anti-AICDA(Activation-ind Anti AICDA(Activation ind Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon

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Live conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue analysis in rabbit under inflammatory stimuli using in vivo confocal microscopy.

Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) plays an important role in ocular surface immunity. No study until now has been able to show its in vivo aspects, and few have demonstrated its reactions after pathologic patterns. The authors investigated in rabbit eyes the cell reactions occurring in the organized CALT during conjunctival inflammation models.

1767 related Products with: Live conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue analysis in rabbit under inflammatory stimuli using in vivo confocal microscopy.

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Assessment of cervicovaginal cytokine levels following exposure to microbicide Nisin gel in rabbits.

Topical microbicides is an emerging female controlled strategy for preventing the acquisition and transmission of STIs/HIV infections. Since they are intended for repeated vaginal and/or rectal use it is essential to validate their safety. Nisin, a naturally occurring contraceptive antimicrobial peptide (AMP) is currently the focus of clinical trials. The present in vitro vaginal tissue explants culture studies revealed that Nisin did not effect vaginal cell viability analyzed at 15, 30, 45 and 60min following treatment with different concentrations of Nisin gel prepared in 1% polycarbophil gel (30.3, 60.6, 121.2, 242.4 and 484.8 microM/g tissue) and SDS (0.35, 0.70, 1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 microM/g tissue) gels compared to placebo gel treated groups. The levels of various pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha,) and immuno-regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and GM-CSF) in the explant culture supernatants of the Nisin treated cells were unaffected. Repeated intravaginal application of high dose of Nisin gel (15,150 microM/day/14 days) on cervicovaginal epithelium was evaluated in rabbits and the results were compared with SDS treated (56 microM) and 1% polycarbophil gel (placebo) groups. We examined vaginal cell morphology, structural integrity of vaginal epithelium and local production of cytokines (PICs) in the cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) of Nisin treated animals and compared with placebo and SDS treated groups. The results demonstrated no treatment related abnormalities either in the vaginal cell morphology or structural abnormalities in the mucosal epithelium. There was no change in the cytokine levels in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) compared to SDS gel treated animals indicating Nisin gel did not induce irritation and/or inflammation in the vaginal epithelium. CVL cytokine levels were in accordance with immunohistochemical (IHC) localization of cytokines and flow cytometric evaluation of CD45 immune cell population in cervicovaginal epithelium. The levels of cytokines in the CVLs appear to be sensitive indicators in identifying and/or screening out suitable candidate microbicides before they enter phase-1 trials. In conclusion, the lack of vaginal toxicity of Nisin gel means that it has clinical potential as a safe, prophylactic contraceptive in addition to its antimicrobial activities to curb sexual transmission of HIV in human.

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Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Recombinant Human Interfe Native Influenza HA (A To Native Influenza HA (A To Native Influenza HA (A To Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri Cell Meter™ Fluorimetri T-2 Toxin Mycotoxins ELIS Cytokine antibody array i Cytokine (Human) Antibody Cytokine (Human) Antibody

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Preclinical evaluation of a dual-acting microbicidal prodrug WHI-07 in combination with vanadocene dithiocarbamate in the female reproductive tract of rabbit, pig, and cat.

The mucosal safety of the combination antiretroviral spermicide,WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] and vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), was evaluated in 3 different animal models. Twenty-seven NZW rabbits in four subgroups were exposed intravaginally to a gel-microemulsion (GM) with and without three dose levels of WHI-07 plus VDDTC (0.5+0.06%, 1.0+0.12% and 2.0+0.25%) or 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9; Conceptrol) for 14 consecutive days. Ten nonestrus gilts (Duroc) in three subgroups received either a single or daily intravaginal application of GM with and without 2.0% WHI-07 plus 0.25% VDDTC or 2.0% benzalkonium chloride (BZK)-containing gel for 6 and 4 consecutive days, respectively. Five cats received a single intravaginal application of GM incorporating 2.0% WHI-07 plus 0.25% VDDTC. Genital tract histopathology was performed in the pig and rabbit at the end of dosing period but after 18 weeks post-dosing in the cat. Porcine cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid was obtained for up to 72 hours after a single exposure and changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) were quantitated by a multiplexed chemiluminescence-based immunoassay. Rabbit vaginal tissues were evaluated for localized cellular inflammation and in situ apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining for CD45, nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated FITC-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively. Vanadium content in selected organs and body fluids from rabbits and pigs was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared with 4% N-9 (total irritation score 13-14 out of a possible 16), none of the rabbits given WHI-07 plus VDDTC intravaginally, developed histological alterations such as epithelial erosion, edema, leukocyte influx or vascular congestion characteristic of inflammation (total irritation score 4-6). CD45 and NF-kappa B immunoreactivity was limited to cells within the vascular lumen of both control and WHI-07 plus VDDTC-treated vaginal tissues. TUNEL assay revealed lack of increased apoptotic cells in vaginal mucosa exposed to increasing concentrations of WHI-07 plus VDDTC. Basal levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in porcine CVL were unaffected by intravaginal exposure to WHI-07 plus VDDTC when compared with BZK used as a positive control. Endpoint histology of the reproductive tract from cats and pigs after a single or repeated intravaginal exposure to WHI-07 plus VDDTC, respectively, revealed lack of irritation/inflammation in the epithelium, subepithelium/lamina propria, vessels/perivascular tissues, and underlying/surrounding muscles. Vanadium was not preferentially incorporated into rabbit or porcine tissues and body fluids at levels above 1 microg/g. Based on comparative histologic data and surrogate markers for inflammation, repeated intravaginal administration of WHI-07 plus VDDTC via a gel-microemulsion did not result in vaginal irritation, mucosal toxicity, or systemic absorption of vanadium. Therefore, the combined use of WHI-07 and VDDTC via gel-microemulsion appears safe for topical use as a prophylactic anti-HIV microbicide.

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Rabbit Anti-intestinal FA Rabbit Anti-Pig Gastrin I Female reproductive syste Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Interferon-a Receptor Typ Rabbit Anti-Inf A Neurami Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H

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Ras/PI3kinase/cofilin-independent activation of human CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells by superagonistic CD28 stimulation.

T cell activation requires costimulation of TCR/CD3 plus accessory receptors (e.g. CD28). A hallmark of costimulation is the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, important for receptor polarization in the immunological synapse. The classical model of T cell costimulation was challenged by the detection of superagonistic anti-CD28 antibodies. These induce T cell proliferation and--as demonstrated here--production of IFN-gamma, CD25 and CD69 even in the absence of TCR/CD3 coligation. Here, we analyzed whether superagonistic CD28 stimulation induces costimulatory signaling events. Costimulation leads to phosphorylation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and dephosphorylation of the actin-reorganizing protein cofilin. Cofilin binds to F-actin only in its dephosphorylated form. Binding of cofilin to F-actin leads to depolymerization or severing of F-actin. The latter ends up in smaller F-actin fragments, which can be elongated at the free barbed ends. This results in enhanced actin polymerization. Dephosphorylation of cofilin requires activation of Ras and PI3Kinase. Interestingly, superagonistic CD28 stimulation activates human peripheral blood T cells independently of Ras and PI3Kinase. Accordingly, it does not lead to cofilin dephosphorylation and receptor polarization. Likewise, L-plastin is not phosphorylated. Thus, superagonistic CD28 stimulation does not mimic costimulation. Instead, it leads to a Ras/PI3Kinase/cofilin-independent state of "unpolarized T cell activation".

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Rabbit Anti-Human CD282, Goat Anti-Human CD284, N- Recombinant Human OPG TNF Recombinant Human OPG TNF Recombinant Human THPO [f anti CD38 Hematopoietic p anti Transferrin receptor Mitochondria GFP Tag Huma Plasma Membrane GFP Tag H Human Tonsil Microvascula Mouse Anti-Human CD282, R Mouse Anti-Human CD284, R

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