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Post treatment controllers after treatment interruption in chronically HIV infected patients.

Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection.

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MAIT cells are chronically activated in patients with autoimmune liver disease and promote pro-fibrogenic hepatic stellate cell activation.

Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) are chronic liver pathologies characterised by fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immune-mediated liver damage. In this study, we addressed the question whether mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells, are functionally altered in patients with AILD and whether MAIT cells can promote liver fibrosis through activation of hepatic stellate cells. We analysed the phenotype and function of MAIT cells from AILD patients and healthy controls by multi-colour flow cytometry and investigated the interaction between human MAIT cells and primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs). We show that MAIT cells are significantly decreased in peripheral blood and liver tissue of patients with AILD. Notably, MAIT cell frequency tended to decrease with increasing fibrosis stage. MAIT cells from AILD patients showed signs of exhaustion, such as impaired IFNγ production and high ex vivo expression of the activation and exhaustion markers CD38, HLA-DR and CTLA-4. Mechanistically, this exhausted state could be induced by repetitive stimulation of MAIT cells with the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, leading to decreased IFNγ and increased exhaustion marker expression. Of note, repetitive stimulation with IL-12 further resulted in expression of the pro-fibrogenic cytokine IL-17A by otherwise exhausted MAIT cells. Accordingly, MAIT cells from both healthy controls and AILD patients were able to induce an activated, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic phenotype in hHSCs in vitro, which was partly mediated by IL-17.

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A comprehensive flow-cytometry-based immunophenotypic characterization of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration.

We previously described a subset of MYC translocation-negative aggressive B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma, characterized by proximal gains and distal losses in chromosome 11. In the 2016 WHO classification, these MYC-negative lymphomas were recognized as a new provisional entity, 'Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration'. Here we present an immunophenotype analysis of Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration. Cells were acquired by fine needle aspiration biopsy from 10 young adult patients, 80% of whom presented recurrence-free 5-year survival. Twenty-three MYC-positive Burkitt lymphomas, including three carrying both MYC rearrangement and 11q aberration, served as controls. By immunohistochemistry, all Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration were CD20+/CD10+/BCL6+/BCL2-/MUM1-/MYC+/EBV-, usually LMO2+/CD44-/CD43- and sometimes CD56+, and showed high proliferation rate. By flow cytometry, Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration immunophenotypically resembled MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, except for significantly (adjusted P<0.001) more frequent CD38higher expression in Burkitt lymphoma (91% MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma vs 10% Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration), more frequently diminished CD45 expression in Burkitt lymphoma (74% vs 10%), an exclusive CD16/CD56 and highly restricted CD8 expression in Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration (60% vs 0% and 40% vs 4%, respectively). We showed high diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of flow cytometry in Burkitt lymphoma. CD16/CD56 expression without CD38higher and the lack of CD16/CD56 with CD38higher expression proves to be a reliable, fast, and cost-effective method for diagnosing 11q aberration and MYC rearrangements in CD10(+) aggressive lymphomas, respectively. In addition, we confirmed a pattern of an inverted duplication with telomeric loss of 11q, as a recurrent 11q abnormality, but one case presented alternative changes, possibly resulting in an equivalent molecular effect. Our findings reveal similarities along with subtle but essential differences in the immunophenotype of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration and MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, important for the differential diagnosis, but also for understanding the pathogenesis of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 12 January 2018; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.186.

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High frequency of CD34+CD38-/low immature leukemia cells is correlated with unfavorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

To evaluate the importance of the CD34+CD38- cell population when compared to the CD34+CD38+/low and CD34+CD38+/high leukemic cell sub-populations and to determine its correlations with leukemia characteristics and known prognostic factors, as well as with response to therapy and survival.

2964 related Products with: High frequency of CD34+CD38-/low immature leukemia cells is correlated with unfavorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

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Metabolic Reprogramming via Targeting CD38 NADase Augments Adoptive T Cell Therapy.

One strategy to improve the potency of adoptive T cell therapy is to augment the function and persistence of anti-tumor T cells. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Chatterjee et al. (2018) demonstrate that intratumoral CD4+ T cell functions and memory can be improved by targeting a CD38-NAD+-Sirt1-Foxo1 metabolic circuit.

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Flow Cytometric Aberrancies in Plasma Cell Myeloma and MGUS - Correlation with Laboratory Parameters.

Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) is a useful tool for diagnosis of plasma cell dyscrasias and assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in plasma cell myeloma (PCM). However, the immunophenotypic differences between the clonal plasma cells (PCs) of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and those of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as well as the correlation of these flow cytometric markers with pertinent laboratory parameters have not been evaluated.

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Evaluation of CD229 as a new alternative plasma cell gating marker in the flow cytometric immunophenotyping of monoclonal gammopathies.

Current flow-cytometric plasma cell (PC) gating is based on CD138, CD38 and CD45 expression. CD138 is known for variable expression and loss during storage and processing. Introduction of anti-CD38 and anti-CD138 monoclonal-antibody therapies has limited the use of these markers during follow-up. Hence, additional reliable PC-gating markers are required. Recently, CD229 has been claimed as an alternative PC-gating marker. However, these studies are limited to a small cohort of samples. We evaluated the utility of CD229 as a new PC-gating marker in routine laboratory practice.

1526 related Products with: Evaluation of CD229 as a new alternative plasma cell gating marker in the flow cytometric immunophenotyping of monoclonal gammopathies.

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Joint damage is amplified in rheumatoid arthritis patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies.

Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), which is characterized by an increased presence of thyroid autoantibodies (TAbs), such as antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) and antibodies against thyroglobulin (TgAbs), has been reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because AITD and RA both involve autoimmunity. However, few data are available on the incidence of TAbs in Chinese RA patients, and studies on the association between TAbs and joint damage as well as synovitis in RA patients remain sparse. Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence of TAbs in a consecutive Chinese RA cohort and to investigate whether the elevated presence of TAbs is associated with joint damage and synovitis in RA patients.

1004 related Products with: Joint damage is amplified in rheumatoid arthritis patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies.

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Azacitidine combined with the selective FLT3 kinase inhibitor crenolanib disrupts stromal protection and inhibits expansion of residual leukemia-initiating cells in FLT3-ITD AML with concurrent epigenetic mutations.

Effectively targeting leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) in FLT3-ITD-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is crucial for cure. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have limited impact as single agents, failing to eradicate LIC in the bone marrow. Using primary AML samples and a patient-derived xenograft model, we investigated whether combining the FLT3-selective TKI crenolanib with the hypomethylating agent azacitidine (AZA) eliminates FLT3-ITD LIC and whether efficacy of this combination depends on co-existing mutations. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we show FLT3-ITD occurs within the most primitive Lin-/CD33(+)/CD45dim/CD34+CD38- LIC compartment. Crenolanib alone could not target FLT3-ITD LIC in contact with niche cells while addition of AZA overcame stromal protection resulting in dramatically reduced clonogenic capacity of LIC in vitro and severely impaired engraftment in NSG mice. Strikingly, FLT3-mutated samples harboring TET2 mutations were completely resistant to crenolanib whereas neither NPM1 nor DNMT3A mutations influenced response. Conversely, primary AML LIC harboring either TET2, DNMT3A or NPM1 mutations did not show increased sensitivity to AZA. In summary, resistance of FLT3-ITD LIC to TKI depends on co-existing epigenetic mutations. However, AZA + crenolanib effectively abrogates stromal protection and inhibits survival of FLT3-ITD LIC irrespective of mutations, providing evidence for this combination as a means to suppress residual LIC.

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CD20-selective inhibition of CD47-SIRPα "don't eat me" signaling with a bispecific antibody-derivative enhances the anticancer activity of daratumumab, alemtuzumab and obinutuzumab.

Here, we report on a novel bispecific antibody-derivative, designated RTX-CD47, with unique capacity for CD20-directed inhibition of CD47-SIRPα "don't eat me" signaling. RTX-CD47 comprises a CD20-targeting scFv antibody fragment derived from rituximab fused in tandem to a CD47-blocking scFv. Single agent treatment with RTX-CD47 triggered significant phagocytic removal of CD20pos/CD47pos malignant B-cells, but not of CD20neg/CD47pos cells, and required no pro-phagocytic FcR-mediated signaling. Importantly, treatment with RTX-CD47 synergistically enhanced the phagocytic elimination of primary malignant B cells by autologous phagocytic effector cells as induced by therapeutic anticancer antibodies daratumumab (anti-CD38), alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) and obinutuzumab (anti-CD20). In conclusion, RTX-CD47 blocks CD47 "don't eat me" signaling by cancer cells in a CD20-directed manner with essentially no activity towards CD20neg/CD47pos cells and enhances the activity of therapeutic anticancer antibodies directed to B-cell malignancies.

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