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Affinity-Based Purification of Polyisocyanopeptide Bioconjugates.

Water-soluble polyisocyanopeptides (PICs) are a new class of synthetic polymers that mimic natural protein-based filaments. Their unique semiflexible properties combined with a length of several hundred nanometers have recently enabled a number of biomedical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer immunotherapy. One crucial step toward the further development of PICs for these applications is the efficient and controlled synthesis and purification of PIC-biomolecule conjugates. Considering the large size of PICs and the biomolecules to be conjugated, conjugation reactions do usually not proceed to completion due to steric effects. As a consequence, purification of the reaction mixture is necessary to separate the obtained bioconjugates from unreacted biomolecules. As a direct result of the semiflexible nature of PICs, standard polymer and protein purification methods based on molecular weight have not been successful. Here, we introduce a new affinity-based purification method utilizing biotin as an affinity tag. PICs decorated with a controlled and tunable density of biotin molecules (biotinPICs) were efficiently bound to and eluted from a monoavidin resin in buffered aqueous solution. Using these biotinPICs, two different protein conjugates were synthesized, one carrying the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) and the other T-cell activating anti-CD3 antibodies. The resulting biotinPIC-protein conjugates were successfully obtained in high purity (>90%) and without any loss of protein activity. The high purity greatly simplifies the analysis of biotinPIC bioconjugates, such as the determination of the average number of biomolecules conjugated per biotinPIC chain. Most importantly, it allows for the direct and straightforward application of the obtained bioconjugates in the desired applications. The new method developed may further be adapted for the purification of other advanced bioconjugates that are difficult to obtain in high purity with the available standard methods.

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Binding affinities/avidities of antibody-antigen interactions: quantification and scale-up implications.

Bioaffinity interactions have been, and continue to be, successfully adapted from nature for use in separation and detection applications. It has been previously reported that the magnetophoretic mobility of labeled cells show a saturation type phenomenon as a function of the concentration of the free antibody-magnetic nanoparticle conjugate which is consistent with other reports of antibody-fluorophore binding. Starting with the standard antibody-antigen relationship, a model was developed which takes into consideration multi-valence interactions, and various attributes of flow cytometry (FCM) and cell tracking velocimetry (CTV) measurements to determine both the apparent dissociation constant and the antibody-binding capacity (ABC) of a cell. This model was then evaluated on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) labeled with anti CD3 antibodies conjugated to FITC, PE, or DM (magnetic nanoparticles). Reasonable agreements between the model and the experiments were obtained. In addition, estimates of the limitation of the number of magnetic nanoparticles that can bind to a cell as a result of steric hinderance was consistent with measured values of magnetophoretic mobility. Finally, a scale-up model was proposed and tested which predicts the amount of antibody conjugates needed to achieve a given level of saturation as the total number of cells reaches 10(10), the number of cells needed for certain clinical applications, such as T-cell depletions for mismatched bone marrow transplants.

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Expression of T-cell receptors TcR1 (gamma/delta) and TcR2 (alpha/beta) in the human intestinal mucosa.

Cryostat sections of normal human adult gastrointestinal mucosae were studied by double-label immunofluorescence with antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD5 and CD6, in parallel with antibodies beta F1 and TCR delta 1 against beta-chains and delta-chains of the T-cell receptor (TcR) types TcR2 (alpha/beta) and TcR1 (gamma/delta), respectively. Virtually no TcR1+ were found within the lamina propria. In the epithelial compartment, TcR1+ cells were infrequent: in the small bowel, congruent to 2% of T cells were TcR1+. In the colonic epithelium, the percentage of T cells expressing gamma/delta-chains was higher, with a mean value approximating 15-20%, although this apparently large percentage increase compared with small bowel reflects in part a much lower density of colonic IEL, as absolute numbers of TCR delta 1+ cells were comparable. Of the TcR1+ population, about half were CD4- CD8-, 'double negatives' and the remainder were CD8+. TcR1+ cells were also CD5- CD6-, irrespective of expression of CD8. No CD4+ cells expressing TcR1 were observed: essentially all CD4+ cells were beta F1+, with some variability of labelling intensity. Approximately 30-50% of the CD8+ subset expressed the beta F1 antigen strongly. However, in the remaining TcR1- CD8+ cells, which were all of the CD5- CD6- phenotype, expression of the beta F1 antigen was only detectable when streptavidin and biotin conjugates were used for amplification of labelling. Thus, the CD8+ CD5- subset, a prominent population of the epithelial compartment of the small bowel, was either TcR2dull in the majority or TcR1+ in a minority. Our data imply that gamma/delta TcR1 cells may be actively excluded from intestinal lamina propria, and that any preferential localization that does occur is limited and is rather a feature of the colonic mucosa, rather than the small bowel.

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