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CX3CR1 identifies PD-1 therapy-responsive CD8+ T cells that withstand chemotherapy during cancer chemoimmunotherapy.

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have resulted in durable clinical benefits in a subset of patients with advanced cancer, some patients who did not respond to initial anti-PD-1 therapy have been found to benefit from the addition of salvage chemotherapy. However, the mechanism responsible for the successful chemoimmunotherapy is not completely understood. Here we show that a subset of circulating CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are able to withstand the toxicity of chemotherapy and are increased in patients with metastatic melanoma who responded to chemoimmunotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin plus PD-1 blockade). These CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells have effector memory phenotypes and the ability to efflux chemotherapy drugs via the ABCB1 transporter. In line with clinical observation, our preclinical models identified an optimal sequencing of chemoimmunotherapy that resulted in an increase of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells. Taken together, we found a subset of PD-1 therapy-responsive CD8+ T cells that were capable of withstanding chemotherapy and executing tumor rejection with their unique abilities of drug efflux (ABCB1), cytolytic activity (granzyme B and perforin), and migration to and retention (CX3CR1 and CD11a) at tumor sites. Future strategies to monitor and increase the frequency of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells may help to design effective chemoimmunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

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The CD11a and Endothelial Protein C Receptor Marker Combination Simplifies and Improves the Purification of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the self-renewing multipotent progenitors to all blood cell types. Identification and isolation of HSCs for study has depended on the expression of combinations of surface markers on HSCs that reliably distinguish them from other cell types. However, the increasing number of markers required to isolate HSCs has made it tedious, expensive, and difficult for newcomers, suggesting the need for a simpler panel of HSC markers. We previously showed that phenotypic HSCs could be separated based on expression of CD11a and that only the CD11a negative fraction contained true HSCs. Here, we show that CD11a and another HSC marker, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), can be used to effectively identify and purify HSCs. We introduce a new two-color HSC sorting method that can highly enrich for HSCs with efficiencies comparable to the gold standard combination of CD150 and CD48. Our results demonstrate that adding CD11a and EPCR to the HSC biologist's toolkit improves the purity of and simplifies isolation of HSCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018.

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Clinical implications of CD4 T cell subsets in adult atopic asthma patients.

T cells play a central role in chronic inflammation in asthma. However, the roles of individual subsets of T cells in the pathology of asthma in patients remain to be better understood.

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Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of human intermediate monocytes based on HLA-DR expression.

Human blood monocytes are subclassified as classical, intermediate and nonclassical. In this study, it was shown that conventionally defined human intermediate monocytes can be divided into two distinct subpopulations with mid- and high-level surface expression of HLA-DR (referred to as DR and DR intermediate monocytes). These IM subpopulations were phenotypically and functionally characterized in healthy adult blood by flow cytometry, migration assays and lipoprotein uptake assays. Their absolute numbers and proportions were then compared in blood samples from obese and nonobese adults. DR and DR intermediate monocytes differentially expressed several proteins including CD62L, CD11a, CX3CR1 and CCR2. Overall, the DR intermediate monocytes surface profile more closely resembled that of classical monocytes while DR intermediate monocytes were more similar to nonclassical. However, in contrast to classical monocytes, DR intermediate monocytes migrated weakly to CCL2, had reduced intracellular calcium flux following CCR2 ligation and favored adherence to TNFα-activated endothelium over transmigration. In lipid uptake assays, DR intermediate monocytes demonstrated greater internalization of oxidized and acetylated low-density lipoprotein than DR intermediate monocytes. In obese compared to nonobese adults, proportions and absolute numbers of DR , but not DR intermediate monocytes, were increased in blood. The results are consistent with phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the intermediate monocytes subset that may be of specific relevance to lipoprotein scavenging and metabolic health.

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Pathogenic Bacterium Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion.

Hospital-acquired infections caused by have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by , bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, , and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for infections.

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ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) consensus document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an infectious diseases perspective-immune checkpoint inhibitors, cell adhesion inhibitors, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators and proteasome inhibitors.

The present review is part of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) consensus document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies.

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Phenotypic and functional modulations of porcine macrophages by interferons and interleukin-4.

Considering that macrophage functions are strongly impacted by the local tissue environment and the type of immune response, the aim of this study was to carefully set the methodological baseline for phenotype and functions of polarized porcine monocyte-derived macrophages. To this end, macrophages were generated in autologous serum alone or with colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 or CSF-2, and subsequently polarized with interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin-4 or IFNβ. IFNγ promoted expression of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD11a, and CD40 as well as LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-12. A hallmark of interleukin-4 was Arginase 1 and CD203a upregulation, without abrogating pro-inflammatory cytokine production. IFNβ induced CD169, MHC class I, CD40, CD80/86, but suppressed IL-6, IL-12 and tumor-necrosis-factor secretion. CSF-2 alone altered macrophage differentiation and promoted an IFNγ-like polarization. Altogether, the results provide a comprehensive overview of porcine macrophage polarization, and demonstrate commonalities with other species as well as peculiarities of the pig.

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β Integrins As Regulators of Dendritic Cell, Monocyte, and Macrophage Function.

Emerging evidence suggests that the β integrin family of adhesion molecules have an important role in suppressing immune activation and inflammation. β integrins are important adhesion and signaling molecules that are exclusively expressed on leukocytes. The four β integrins (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, and CD11d paired with the β chain CD18) play important roles in regulating three key aspects of immune cell function: recruitment to sites of inflammation; cell-cell contact formation; and downstream effects on cellular signaling. Through these three processes, β integrins both contribute to and regulate immune responses. This review explores the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of β integrins in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and how they influence the outcome of immune responses. We furthermore discuss how imbalances in β integrin function can have far-reaching effects on mounting appropriate immune responses, potentially influencing the development and progression of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Therapeutic targeting of β integrins, therefore, holds enormous potential in exploring treatment options for a variety of inflammatory conditions.

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The role of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 in modulating immune detection of choriocarcinoma.

Gestational choriocarcinomas are derived from placental trophoblast cells, with HLA-C being the only class I polymorphic molecule expressed. However, choriocarcinomas have not been profiled for endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) expression. ERAP2 trims peptides presented by human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that have shown to modulate immune response. Over 50% of choriocarcinomas we screened lack ERAP2 expression, which suggests that the absence of ERAP2 expression allows immune evasion of choriocarcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the ability of choriocarcinoma cells to activate lymphocytes was lowest with cells lacking ERAP2 (JEG-3) or HLA-C (JAr). This observation suggests that activation is dependent on expression of both ERAP2 and HLA-C molecules. In addition, an ERAP2 variant in which lysine is changed to asparagine (K392N) results in increased trimming activity (165-fold) for hydrophobic peptides and biologically never been detected. We hypothesize that homozygosity for the N392 ERAP2 variant is prohibited because it modulates the immune recognition of placental trophoblasts. We demonstrate that NK-cell activation and killing were significantly dependent on forced expression of the N392 ERAP2 isoform in JEG-3 cells. Cytotoxicity was confirmed by 7AAD killing assays showing that N392 ERAP2-isoform expressing JEG-3 cells had the highest percentage of apoptotic cells independent of the expression level of CD11a on lymphocytes. This is the first report showing that N392 ERAP2 promotes an immune clearance pathway for choriocarcinoma cells, and provides an explanation for why embryonic homozygosity for the N392 ERAP2 variant is not detected in any population.

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Flow cytometry analysis of CD64, CD18, CD11a and CD11b in four children with Bordetella pertussis infection and admitted to critical care: New biomarkers?


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