Search results for: Bromocresol green, sodium salt
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Lateral movements in Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to frontiers. Experimental study.Lateral movements of the fingers in Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two fluids are studied. We show that transverse movements appear when a physical boundary is present; these phenomena have not been explained until now. The boundary prevents one of the fluids from crossing it. Such frontiers can be buoyancy driven as, for example, the frontier to the passage of a less dense solution through a denser solution or when different aggregation states coexist (liquid and gaseous phases). An experimental study of the lateral movement velocity of the fingers was performed for different Rayleigh numbers (Ra), and when oscillations were detected, their amplitudes were studied. Liquid-liquid (L-L) and gas-liquid (G-L) systems were analysed. Aqueous HCl and Bromocresol Green (sodium salt, NaBCG) solutions were used in L-L experiments, and CO(gas) and aqueous NaOH, NaHCO, and CaClsolutions were employed for the G-L studies. We observed that the lateral movement of the fingers and finger collapses near the interface are more notorious when Ra increases. The consequences of this, for each experience, are a decrease in the number of fingers and an increase in the velocity of the lateral finger movement close to the interface as time evolves. We found that the amplitude of the oscillations did not vary significantly within the considered Ra range. These results have an important implication when determining the wave number of instabilities in an evolving system. The wave number could be strongly diminished if there is a boundary.
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A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer.
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Removal of non-ionic organic pollutants from water via liquid-liquid extraction.The removal of model pollutants bromocresol green (BG) and phenol from water is demonstrated via two liquid-liquid extraction methods. Both methods exploit selective interactions established by the pollutant molecule with a surfactant, oil, or alcohol, and are variants of the more general Winsor systems where the phases are in contact along an extremely large interfacial area. In the first method the surfactant and the co-surfactant move from a predominantly oil-in-water microemulsion (Winsor I), to a middle phase microemulsion (Winsor III), and finally to a water-in-oil microemulsion (Winsor II), as the physicochemical conditions of salinity, temperature or hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the surfactant system are varied. This method achieves better than 99% removal of the pollutant BG from water. It is argued that the removal is produced upon increasing the salinity of the system because the interaction of BG with a medium chain-length alcohol drives it to move along with the alcohol to another phase. The second method, which is scalable to industrial levels, uses a spontaneously produced water-in-oil microemulsion with large interfacial area that appears after bringing in contact water and a pre-formed Winsor II or Winsor III microemulsion system containing different surfactants and oils. The method is applied to the removal of phenol from water, and it is found that systems with polar oils such as ethyl butyrate or with cationic surfactants such as stearyl trimethylammonium chloride are more efficient in removing phenol than systems with normal alkanes or anionic surfactants. It is also shown that a microemulsion formed using a polar oil performs better than using only the polar oil as the extraction solvent. Finally, the efficiency of the second liquid-liquid extraction method can be increased from 69% in a single-stage process to 83% in a two-stage process, using the same total amount of extraction solvent.
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Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of benazepril hydrochloride in its single and multi-component dosage forms.Three sensitive and accurate methods are presented for the determination of benazepril in its dosage forms. The first method uses derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to formulation matrix. The second method depends on the color formed by the reaction of the drug with bromocresol green (BCG). The third one utilizes the reaction of benazepril, after alkaline hydrolysis, with 3-methylbenzothialozone (MBTH) hydrazone where the produced color is measured at 593 nm. The latter method was extended to develop a stability-indicating method for this drug. Moreover, the derivative method was applied for the determination of benazepril in its combination with hydrochlorothiazide. The proposed methods were applied for the analysis of benazepril in the pure form and in tablets. The coefficient of variation was less than 2%.
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Basolateral taurine transport system in reptilian renal cells.The characteristics of taurine transport across renal basolateral membranes were examined, using basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from garter snake (Thamnophis spp.) kidneys. BLMV fraction exhibited high enrichment for the basolateral marker enzyme, Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (23-fold), with approximately 10% contamination by brush-border membranes. Taurine uptake into BLMV was specifically stimulated by inwardly directed Na+ gradient in the presence of Cl-. Equilibrium NaCl condition and replacement of NaCl gradient by KCl, choline chloride, NaSCN, sodium gluconate, or mannitol inhibited taurine uptake. Unlike brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV), taurine uptake into BLMV was not stimulated by a Cl- gradient. In further contrast to BBMV, BLMV taurine uptake was smaller in magnitude and not electrogenic. The stoichiometric relationship between Na+ and BLMV taurine uptake, determined by activation method, indicated a 1 Na+:1 taurine interaction, in contrast to the 3 Na+:1 taurine stoichiometry for BBMV taurine transport. Bromcresol green inhibited BBMV taurine transport but had no effect on BLMV taurine uptake. Efflux of taurine from BLMV was faster than that from BBMV. Unlike BBMV, the BLMV efflux was stimulated by external taurine. The observed characteristics of taurine transport on both membranes would integratively result in net transepithelial reabsorption of taurine across renal cells of the garter snake, a species that demonstrates both net reabsorption and secretion of taurine in vivo.
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Problems associated with plasma albumin estimation in nephrotic syndrome using the bromocresol green method.Evaluation of albumin estimation by bromocresol green (BCG) method was carried out in sixty nephrotics and twenty control subjects. In nephrotic syndrome, varies; is directly proportional, to 2-globulin and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly increased, while the mean albumin level was significantly reduced when compared with the corresponding control values. In both control and nephrotics, the determination of serum albumin by the BCG method showed good correlations with values obtained by cellulose acetate electrophoresis using the biuret method to determine the total protein, but the mean value for the nephrotics was higher by an average of 0.4g/100ml. Interference with the BCG reaction by an increased varies; is directly proportional, to 2-globulin level was suggested as a possible explanation for the higher mean albumin level obtained by the BCG method in the nephrotics. Inclusion of 0.8M NaCl in the BCG assay system did not prevent the interference by other proteins. However, this interference could to a large extent, be offset by calibrating with a pool of fresh sera previously determined by electrophoresis.
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Rapid glutamic acid decarboxylase test for identification of Bacteroides and Clostridium spp.A rapid 4-h test for glutamic acid decarboxylase is described for the identification of certain anaerobic bacteria. The test substrate consisted of 1.0 g of L-glutamic acid, 0.3 ml of Triton X-155, and 0.05 g of bromcresol green sodium salt in 1 liter of water. The substrate was dispensed in 0.5-ml amounts into test tubes, and a turbid suspension was made with the test organism. The test was then incubated aerobically at 35 degrees C for 4 h. The development of a blue color was considered positive. A total of 345 strains of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria were tested. All isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis. Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium sordellii gave a positive reaction. Some isolates of Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides vulgatus were also positive. The use of this rapid test in conjunction with other rapid methods, such as the spot indol test, will enable laboratory workers to report these pathogens on the same day on which an inoculum of pure culture growth on agar is available.
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Quantitative procedure for enumeration of bifidobacteria.A membrane filter technique has been developed for the enumeration of bifidobacteria in natural aquatic environments. The technique is quantitative, selective, and differential. The medium (YN-6) contains: yeast extract, 2.0 g; agar, 1.5 g; polypeptone peptone, 1.0 g; vitamin-free Casamino Acids, 0.8 g; sodium chloride, 0.32 g; and L-cysteine hydrochloride, 0.003 g; in 100 ml of deionized water. The medium is adjusted to pH 7.0 before autoclaving. Nalidixic acid (80 micrograms/ml), neomycin sulfate (2.5 micrograms/ml), and bromcresol green (300 micrograms/ml) are included as selective and differential agents. After incubation for 48 h at 37 degrees C in an anaerobic environment, Gram-stained smears from green, glistening, smooth entire colonies are examined microscopically for typical bifidobacterial morphology. No significant difference in recoveries was observed when YN-6 was compared with reinforced clostridial agar, using bifidobacteria freshly isolated from feces and raw sewage. Using this technique with aquatic and fecal samples, less than 9% false-positive and 8% false-negative isolates were observed. These results indicated that the medium was able to satisfactorily recover organisms from a variety of situations.
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Inverse dependence of binding constants upon albumin concentration. Results for L-tryptophan and three anionic dyes.The interactions of methyl orange, bromocresol green, 2-(4'-hydroxybenzeneneazo)benzoic acid (HABA) and L-tryptophan with human albumin at pH 7.4 were investigated by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C. Binding characteristics of each of the three dyes were studied by two approaches: (1) variation of total ligand concentration with a single albumin concentration and (2) variation of albumin concentration with a single total ligand concentration. Both approaches gave typical Scatchard plots with negative slope for methyl orange and bromocresol green, with good agreement between the two sets of data for each dye. In contrast, approach (2) gave Scatchard plots with a positive slope for HABA and L-tryptophan, indicating a decrease in the number of binding sites (n) and/or association constant (k) as the albumin concentration increased. This inverse dependence of nk upon albumin concentration for 2-(4'-hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid was mainly due to changes in n which were still observed in the presence of inhibitory chloride ions at pH 5.75. Reasons for this type of binding behaviour are discussed together with general implications for binding studies. The results show 2-(4'-hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid to be a useful ligand for investigation of this problem.
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Studies on extraction of beryllium from thiocyanate solutions by quaternary ammonium halides.A 0.4M tricaprylmethylammonium chloride solution in n-hexane was used for the quantitative extraction of beryllium from hydrochloric acid (pH 3) and 5M potassium thiocyanate. Beryllium was stripped from the organic phase with 1M sodium hydroxide, then determined volumetrically with bismuthyl perchlorate and bromocresol green indicator. Beryllium was extracted in presence of a large number of elements which are usually associated with it in beryl and in fission products of nuclear fuel.
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