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Potentiation of the humoral immune response elicited by a commercial vaccine against bovine respiratory disease by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121.

Vaccination against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a useful tool to reduce the risk of this disease however, it has been observed that the commercially available vaccines only partially prevent the infections caused by Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. Therefore, it is recommended to search for new adjuvant strategies to minimise the economic impact of this respiratory syndrome. A possibility to improve the conventional vaccine response is to modulate the immune system with probiotics, since there is accumulating evidence that certain immunomodulatory strains administered around the time of vaccination can potentiate the immune response. Considering veterinary vaccines are frequently tested in murine models, we have developed an immunisation schedule in BALB/c mice that allows us to study the immune response elicited by BRD vaccine. In order to evaluate a potential strategy to enhance vaccine efficacy, the adjuvant effect of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 on the murine specific humoral immune response elicited by a commercial vaccine against BRD was studied. Results indicate that the intragastric administration of E. faecalis CECT7121 was able to induce an increase in the specific antibody titres against the bacterial components of the BRD vaccines (P. multocida and M. haemolytica). The quality of the humoral immune response, in terms of antibody avidity, was also improved. Regarding the cellular immune response, although the BRD vaccination induced a low specific secretion of cytokines in the spleen cell culture supernatants, E. faecalis CECT7121-treated mice showed higher interferon-γ production than immunised control mice. Our results allowed us to conclude that the administration of E. faecalis CECT7121 could be employed as an adjuvant strategy to potentiate humoral immune responses.

1651 related Products with: Potentiation of the humoral immune response elicited by a commercial vaccine against bovine respiratory disease by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121.

BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- Anti-BRSV(Bovine Respirat MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Viral antibodies, anti-R anti Rotavirus p42 IgG2a BACTERIOLOGY ENTEROCOCCUS ELMGBI Mouse IgG anti bov Mouse anti-bovine type I Mouse anti-bovine type I ELRGBI Rat IgG anti bovin Rat anti-bovine type I co Rat anti-bovine type I co

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A post-infection serologic assessment of cattle herd immune status after a vesicular stomatitis outbreak and the agreement of antibody assays.

Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle, and pigs in the Western Hemisphere caused by viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. Disease manifests as vesicles and erosions on the oral mucosa, teats, prepuce, and coronary band, and is similar in presentation to foot-and-mouth disease. Laboratory confirmation is therefore required. Conventional assays include competitive (c)ELISA and complement fixation (CF). The cELISA provides more accurate herd-level detection of VSV-exposed cattle, but may lack the ability to capture fluctuating antibody levels in individual animals. The CF assay can confirm newly infected animals because of its ability to detect antigen-antibody complexes, thus is considered to be indicative of IgM. We evaluated the immune status of 2 herds affected by VSV in 2014 by testing sera collected in June 2015. Two conventional assays were compared to a novel IgM-IgG ELISA. When sampled in 2015, both herds had detectable VSV-specific antibodies; 18% and 36% of animals tested by cELISA and 2% and 8% of animals tested by CF were positive. The novel IgM-IgG assay exhibited fair agreement (adjusted kappa score of 48) with the conventional assays, and should be evaluated further to assess its ability to replace the 2 separate assays with a single assay system, or for its ability to replace the CF assay as a more sensitive method for defining newly exposed animals.

1637 related Products with: A post-infection serologic assessment of cattle herd immune status after a vesicular stomatitis outbreak and the agreement of antibody assays.

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Standardization of a latex agglutination test for coproantigen detection of sp. in bovine cattle stool.

Fasciolosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, which affects humans and animals; diagnosed through noncommercial immunoassay tests that cannot be used on the field. Thereby, establishing the optimal conditions to develop a latex agglutination technique with IgG and IgM antibodies directed against excretion/secretion antigens of sp. is a priority. Latex particles were sensitized with IgG and IgM antibodies directed against excretion/secretion antigens of sp. The specificity of the antibodies was determined against antigens of different helminths and protozoa; the sensitivity and specificity of the test was evaluated against a previously standardized direct ELISA. The coupling rates of the IgG and IgM antibodies were 85.77 and 100%, respectively. The minimum detectable concentration of sp. excretion/secretion antigens, diluted in a phosphate-buffered saline, was 1.589 mg/mL(IgG) and 0.158 mg/mL(IgM) and for the antigens incorporated in the bovine cattle stool it was 3.178 mg/mL(IgG) and 1.589 mg/mL(IgM). The test showed crossed reaction against sp., and sp. antigens. Agreement of the IgG and IgM latex test against the ELISA test was of 78.78 and 96.96%, respectively; the specificity found was of 100% for both tests and sensitivity was 78.79% (IgG) and 96.97% (IgM). This work standardized the latex agglutination technique to detect sp. antigens in bovine cattle stool.

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Immunization of pregnant cows with Shiga toxin-2 induces high levels of specific colostral antibodies and lactoferrin able to neutralize E. coli O157:H7 pathogenicity.

E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA. The protective effects of HC-IgG/bLF against Stx2 cytotoxicity and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 and its Stx2-negative mutant were analyzed in HCT-8 cells. HC-IgG/bLF prevention against E. coli O157:H7 was studied in human colon and rat colon loops. Protection against a lethal dose of E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated in a weaned mice model. HC-IgG/bLF showed high anti-Stx2 titers and high bLF levels that were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HC-IgG/bLF avoided the inhibition of water absorption induced by E. coli O157:H7 in human colon and also the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:H7Δstx2 in rat colon loops. Finally, HC-IgG/bLF prevented in a 100% the lethality caused by E. coli O157:H7 in a weaned mice model. Our study suggests that HC-IgG/bLF have protective effects against E. coli O157:H7 infection. These beneficial effects may be due to specific anti-Stx2 neutralizing antibodies in combination with high bLF levels. These results allow us to consider HC-IgG/bLF as a nutraceutical tool which could be used in combination with balanced supportive diets to prevent HUS. However further studies are required before recommendations can be made for therapeutic and clinical applications.

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Identification of suitable adjuvant for vaccine formulation with the Neospora caninum antigen NcSRS2.

The parasite Neospora caninum is the main cause of abortion in cattle in many countries around the world, so a vaccine is a rational approach method for the control of the disease. An effective vaccine should be able to prevent both, the horizontal and vertical transmission of N. caninum. In this study, the immune vaccinal response of the recombinant protein rNcSRS2 of N. caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris and formulated with water-in-oil emulsion, xanthan gum, and alum hydroxide was assessed in an experimental murine model. Groups of 10 Balb/c mice were subcutaneously inoculated with two doses of prNcSRS2 twenty-one days apart. After the second immunization, four mice from each group were euthanized, and splenocytes were stimulated ex vivo with recombinant protein. The IgG dynamics were evaluated by indirect ELISA, and the splenocytes cytokines transcription by qPCR. All groups elicited specific antibodies against prNcSRS2, with the water-in-oil group showing significantly (p ≤ .05) elevated titers compared to the other groups. The prNcSRS2 protein alone did not induce a significant ex vivo splenic transcription level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 cytokines, except for IL-17A, and the adjuvant associations with the prNcSRS2 protein induced different cytokine transcription profiles. The water-in-oil emulsion modulated the expression of TNF-α; the xanthan gum modulated IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12; and alum hydroxide modulated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12. In conclusion, it was found that the association of the recombinant prNcSRS2 protein with different adjuvants induced different levels of specific antibody, and a distinct splenic cytokine profile in an adjuvant-dependent manner. The mechanisms of adjuvancity activity is complex, so adjuvant formulation may help in the design of efficient vaccine to control Neosporosis.

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Serological detection and molecular characterization of piroplasmids in equids in Brazil.

Equine piroplasmosis is a disease caused by the hemoparasites Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and is considered to be the most important parasitic infection affecting Equidae. The objective of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological molecular and serological survey for the presence of these two protozoal organisms in equids from the northwestern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), south Brazil. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 90 equids in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Those were animals used for sport activities, outdoor recreational riding, and work including cattle herding and mounted patrol. Anti-T. equi and anti-B. caballi IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of those animals by commercial ELISA kits. The molecular diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi or B. caballi (or both) consisted in the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene by nested PCR followed by sequencing of the amplified PCR product and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates; 17 (18.9%) and 5 (5.55%) out of the 90 serum samples tested in this study were positive for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. Piroplasmid 18S rRNA gene fragments were detected by PCR in 24.4% (22/90) of the samples analysed and shared 99-100% identity with sequences of T. equi by BLASTn. Samples for the phylogenetic analysis were divided into 2 groups. In group A, there was close phylogenetic relationship between 4 sequences and sequences previously reported along the US-Mexico border, in South Africa, and in Brazil. There was a phylogenetic proximity between 5 samples from group B and samples tested by other authors in the US and Spain. Variation of the 18S rRNA gene allowed the identification of 9 new T. equi genotypes in the geographical region studied.

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Prevalence and risk factors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in livestock and companion animal in high-risk areas in Malaysia.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during two periods, December 2015 to January 2016 and March to August in 2016, to determine the prevalence and risk factors in JEV infections among animals and birds in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples were harvested from the 416 samples which were collected from the dogs, cats, water birds, village chicken, jungle fowls, long-tailed macaques, domestic pigs, and cattle in the states of Selangor, Perak, Perlis, Kelantan, and Pahang. The serum samples were screened for JEV antibodies by commercial IgG ELISA kits. A questionnaire was also distributed to obtain information on the animals, birds, and the environmental factors of sampling areas. The results showed that dogs had the highest seropositive rate of 80% (95% CI: ± 11.69) followed by pigs at 44.4% (95% CI: ± 1.715), cattle at 32.2% (95% CI: ± 1.058), birds at 28.9% (95% CI: ± 5.757), cats at 15.6% (95% CI: ± 7.38), and monkeys at 14.3% (95% CI: ± 1.882). The study also showed that JEV seropositivity was high in young animals and in areas where mosquito vectors and migrating birds were prevalent.

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Longitudinal evaluation of humoral immune response and merozoite surface antigen diversity in calves naturally infected with Babesia bovis, in São Paulo, Brazil.

Babesiosis is an economically important infectious disease affecting cattle worldwide. In order to longitudinally evaluate the humoral immune response against Babesia bovis and the merozoite surface antigen diversity of B. bovis among naturally infected calves in Taiaçu, Brazil, serum and DNA samples from 15 calves were obtained quarterly, from their birth to 12 months of age. Anti-B. bovis IgG antibodies were detected by means of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the genetic diversity of B. bovis, based on the genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSA-1, MSA-2b and MSA-2c). The serological results demonstrated that up to six months of age, all the calves developed active immunity against B. bovis. Among the 75 DNA samples evaluated, 2, 4 and 5 sequences of the genes msa-1, msa-2b and msa-2c were obtained. The present study demonstrated that the msa-1 and msa-2b genes sequences amplified from blood DNA of calves positive to B. bovis from Taiaçu were genetically distinct, and that msa-2c was conserved. All animals were serologically positive to ELISA and IFAT, which used full repertoire of parasite antigens in despite of the genetic diversity of MSAs.

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(Blume) Kuntze Inhibited Secretion of Lipopolysaccharide- and Monosodium Urate Crystal-stimulated Cytokines and Plasma Prostaglandin E.

is traditionally used for dysentery, gonorrhea, and sickness in the bones. Previous studies revealed its antibacterial and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities.

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Intranasal immunization with a recombinant outer membrane protein H based Haemorrhagic septicemia vaccine in dairy calves.

Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a contagious disease in cattle with high morbidity and mortality rates. HS vaccine in Thailand is an oil-adjuvant formulation, and is difficult to administer. The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate the protection in dairy calves conferred by immunization with an in-house intranasal HS vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was formulated in a total volume of 500 µl containing either 50 or 100 µg of the recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2), and 10 µg of Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as a mucosal adjuvant. Intranasal immunizations were conducted three times at three-week intervals. The antibodies post-immunization were detected by indirect ELISA and demonstrated efficient in vitro activity in suppressing a P. multocida strain from the complement-mediated killing assay. An intranasal vaccine induced both the serum IgG and secretory IgA levels that were significantly higher than the level conferred by the parenteral vaccine (P<0.05). Challenge exposure was conducted with a P. multocida strain M-1404 at day 72 of the experiments. The immunized calves had reduced clinical signs after challenge exposure that would normally result in disease proliferation. We conclude that intranasal vaccination of calves with rOmpH with CpG-ODN 2007 stimulated serum and secretory antibodies to rOmpH and whole cells of P. multocida strain M-1404 antigen. Moreover, it would result in protection in calves against artificial P. multocida infection.

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