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           Search results for: Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C Light Chain, Recombinant1   

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High Yield Preparation of Functionally Active Catalytic-Translocation Domain Module of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A That Exhibits Uniquely Different Enzyme Kinetics.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known to cause flaccid muscle paralysis as a result of inhibition of neurotransmitter release from peripheral cholinergic synapses. BoNT type A (BoNT/A) is a 150 kDa protein consisting of two major subunits: light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC). The LC is required for the catalytic activity of neurotoxin, whereas the C and N terminal domains of the HC are required for cell binding, and translocation of LC across the endosome membranes, respectively. To better understand the structural and functional aspects of BoNT/A intoxication we report here the development of high yield Escherichia coli expression system (2-20-fold higher yield than the value reported in the literature) for the production of recombinant light chain-translocation domain (rLC-TD/A) module of BoNT/A which is catalytically active and translocation competent. The open reading frame of rLC-TD/A was PCR amplified from deactivated recombinant BoNT/A gene (a non-select agent reagent), and was cloned using pET45b (+) vector to express in E. coli cells. The purification procedure included a sequential order of affinity chromatography, trypsinization, and anion exchange column chromatography. We were able to purify > 95% pure, catalytically active and structurally well-folded protein. Comparison of enzyme kinetics of purified LC-TD/A to full-length toxin and recombinant light chain A suggest that the affinity for the substrate is in between endopeptidase domain and botulinum toxin. The potential application of the purified protein has been discussed in toxicity and translocation assays.

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Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Anti-ADAM-17 (A Disintegr Anti ADAM 17 (A Disintegr Anti-ACE-1 (Angiotension Anti-ACE-1 (Angiotension Anti-ACE-1 (Angiotension Anti-ACE-2 (Angiotension- Anti-BACE-1 (Memapsin-2, Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor (

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Design of modified botulinum neurotoxin A1 variants with a shorter persistence of paralysis and duration of action.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of low doses of botulinum neurotoxins cause localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the treatment of several medical disorders and aesthetic indications. Optimizing the therapeutic properties could offer new treatment opportunities. This report describes a rational design approach to modify the pharmacological properties by mutations in the C-terminus of BoNT/A1 light chain (LC). Toxins with C-terminal modified LC's displayed an altered onset and duration of the paralytic effect in vivo. The level of effect was dependent on the kind of the mutation in the sequence of the C-terminus. A mutant with three mutations (T420E F423M Y426F) revealed a faster onset and a shorter duration than BoNT/A1 wild type (WT). It could be shown that the C-terminus of BoNT/A1-Lc controls both onset and duration of effect. Thus, it is possible to create a mutated BoNT/A1 with different pharmacological properties which might be useful in the therapy of new indications. This strategy opens the way to design BoNT variants with novel and useful properties.

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A1BG Pre-design Chimera R Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum HCV NS4 mosaic recombinan Clostridium botulinum D T Hemoglobin A1c antibody, Hemoglobin A1c antibody, Active Human Caspase 10 a Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph

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The Regions on the Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Recognized by T Cells from Toxin-Treated Cervical Dystonia Patients. The Complete Human T-Cell Recognition Map of the Toxin Molecule.

We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients. Samples from 14 patients treated solely with BoNT/A recognized 3-13 (average 7.2) peptides/sample at Z > 3.0 level. Two peptide regions representing residues 113-131 and 225-243 were recognized by around 40% of these patients. Regarding treatment parameters, treatment history with current BOTOX only group produced significantly lower average T-cell responses to the 32 L-chain peptides compared to treatments with mix of type A including original and current BOTOX. Influence of other treatment parameters on T-cell recognition of the L-chain peptides was also observed. Results of the submolecular T-cell recognition of the L chain are compared to those of the H chain and the T-cell recognition profile of the entire BoNT/A molecule is discussed. Abbreviations used: BoNT/A, botulinum neurotoxin type A; BoNT/A, inactivated BoNT/A; BoNT/B, botulinum neurotoxin type B; CD, cervical dystonia; L chain, the light chain (residues 1-448) of BoNT/A; LNC, lymph node cells; H chain, the heavy chain (residues 449-1296) of BoNT/A; H, C-terminal domain (residues 855-1296) of H chain; H, N-terminal domain (residues 449-859) of H chain; MPA, mouse protection assay; SI, stimulation index (SI = cpm of H-thymidine incorporated by antigen-stimulated T cells/cpm incorporated by unstimulated cells); TeNT, tetanus neurotoxin; TeNT, inactivated TeNT.

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Deubiquitinating enzyme VCIP135 dictates the duration of botulinum neurotoxin type A intoxication.

Botulism is characterized by flaccid paralysis, which can be caused by intoxication with any of the seven known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), all of which disrupt synaptic transmission by endoproteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins. BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) has the most prolonged or persistent effects, which can last several months, and exerts its effects by specifically cleaving and inactivating SNAP25. A major factor contributing to the persistence of intoxication is the long half-life of the catalytic light chain, which remains enzymatically active months after entry into cells. Here we report that BoNT/A catalytic light chain binds to, and is a substrate for, the ubiquitin ligase HECTD2. However, the light chain evades proteasomal degradation by the dominant effect of a deubiquitinating enzyme, VCIP135/VCPIP1. This deubiquitinating enzyme binds BoNT/A light chain directly, with the two associating in cells through the C-terminal 77 amino acids of the light chain protease. The development of specific DUB inhibitors, together with inhibitors of BoNT/A proteolytic activity, may be useful for reducing the morbidity and public health costs associated with BoNT/A intoxication and could have potential biodefense implications.

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Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Rabbit Anti-C. botulinum Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T HIV type O envelope antig MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Clostridium botulinum D T Dengue Type 1 antibody, M Dengue Type 2 antibody, M

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A novel therapeutic with two SNAP-25 inactivating proteases shows long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic activity in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

A pressing need exists for long-acting, non-addictive medicines to treat chronic pain, a major societal burden. Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) complex - a potent, specific and prolonged inhibitor of neuro-exocytosis - gives some relief in several pain disorders, but not for all patients. Our study objective was to modify BoNT/A to overcome its inability to block transmitter release elicited by high [Ca] and increase its limited analgesic effects. This was achieved by fusing a BoNT/A gene to that for the light chain (LC) of type/E. The resultant purified protein, LC/E-BoNT/A, entered cultured sensory neurons and, unlike BoNT/A, inhibited release of calcitonin gene-related peptide evoked by capsaicin. Western blotting revealed that this improvement could be due to a more extensive truncation by LC/E of synaptosomal-associated protein of Mr = 25 k, essential for neuro-exocytosis. When tested in a rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model, a single intra-plantar (IPL) injection of LC/E-BoNT/A alleviated for ∼2 weeks mechanical and cold hyper-sensitivities, in a dose-dependent manner. The highest non-paralytic dose (75 U/Kg, IPL) proved significantly more efficacious than BoNT/A (15 U/Kg, IPL) or repeated systemic pregabalin (10 mg/Kg, intraperitoneal), a clinically-used pain modulator. Effects of repeated or delayed injections of this fusion protein highlighted its analgesic potential. Attenuation of mechanical hyperalgesia was extended by a second administration when the effect of the first had diminished. When injected 5 weeks after injury, LC/E-BoNT/A also reversed fully-established mechanical and cold hyper-sensitivity. Thus, combining advantageous features of BoNT/E and/A yields an efficacious, locally-applied and long-acting anti-hyperalgesic.

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Neuronal entry and high neurotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxin A require its N-terminal binding sub-domain.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known, due to inhibiting the neuronal release of acetylcholine and causing flaccid paralysis. Most BoNT serotypes target neurons by binding to synaptic vesicle proteins and gangliosides via a C-terminal binding sub-domain (H). However, the role of their conserved N-terminal sub-domain (H) has not been established. Herein, we created a mutant form of recombinant BoNT/A lacking H (rAΔH) and showed that the lethality of this mutant is reduced 3.3 × 10-fold compared to wild-type BoNT/A. Accordingly, low concentrations of rAΔH failed to bind either synaptic vesicle protein 2C or neurons, unlike the high-affinity neuronal binding obtained with I-BoNT/A (K = 0.46 nM). At a higher concentration, rAΔH did bind to cultured sensory neurons and cluster on the surface, even after 24 h exposure. In contrast, BoNT/A became internalised and its light chain appeared associated with the plasmalemma, and partially co-localised with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in some vesicular compartments. We further found that a point mutation (W985L) within H reduced the toxicity over 10-fold, while this mutant maintained the same level of binding to neurons as wild type BoNT/A, suggesting that H makes additional contributions to productive internalization/translocation steps beyond binding to neurons.

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In-Vivo Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Using Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody Developed against BoNT/E Light Chain.

Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium that secretes extremely toxic substances known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause serious paralytic illness called botulism. Based upon the serological properties, these neurotoxin have been classified into seven serotypes designated from A to G. Due to extreme toxicity of BoNTs, these neurotoxins have been designated as category A biowarfare agents. There is no commercial neutralizing antibody available for the treatment of botulism. Hence there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic intervention for prevention and cure of botulism within short period. BoNT antiserum injection is still the effective treatment.

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Expression and purification of recombinant TAT-BoNT/A under denaturing and native conditions.

Botulinum toxin type A can temporarily inhibit muscle contraction. Currently, physicians administer this toxin as a bio-drug in treatment of some muscle contraction disorders. TAT-BoNT/A is a functional recombinant protein derived from botulinum toxin light chain. Unlike the full length botulinum toxin, TAT-BoNT/A is a self-permeable molecule which can pass through bio-surfaces so can be used as a topical therapeutic agent without injection. To maintain the functionality of TAT-BoNT/A, it is necessary to restore its normal folding upon expression and purification. In this study, we have investigated and optimized expression conditions for this novel recombinant protein. Under denaturing condition (1 mM IPTG, at 37°C), the chimeric protein was produced as inclusion body and required to be purified using denaturing agents (e.g. urea). Yet, lower incubation temperature (18°C) and less IPTG concentration (0.5 mM) induce a protein under native condition. In such condition, about 60% of the chimeric protein was expressed in soluble form.

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The Mechanism of the Beneficial Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type a Used in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joints Dysfunction.

In the course of temporomandibular joint, dysfunctions very often occur to the excessive increase in tension of masticatory muscles, so the main aim of the treatment is reduction of this hypertension of muscles. For this reason, we use botulinum toxin type A, which is produced by Grampositive Clostridium bacteria. There are six serotypes of the toxin: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The botulinum toxin type A was first isolated in 1920s. Today, botulinum toxin type A is used increasingly more often as an efficient and patient-friendly therapy in neurology, ophthalmology, neurology, urology and laryngology. The aim of the article was to review the literature and description of the current knowledge concerned with mechanism of action of botulinum toxin type A, clinical applications and metabolic determinants of muscle contraction and the beneficial effect of this drug on the state of muscle tension.

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A highly sensitive and simply operated protease sensor toward point-of-care testing.

Protease sensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) require simple operation, a detection period of less than 20 minutes, and a detection limit of less than 1 ng mL(-1). However, it is difficult to meet these requirements with protease sensors that are based on proteolytic cleavage. This paper reports a highly reproducible protease sensor that allows the sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of the botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain (BoNT/E-LC), which is obtained using (i) low nonspecific adsorption, (ii) high signal-to-background ratio, and (iii) one-step solution treatment. The BoNT/E-LC detection is based on two-step proteolytic cleavage using BoNT/E-LC (endopeptidase) and l-leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP, exopeptidase). Indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are modified partially with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to increase their electrocatalytic activities. Avidin is then adsorbed on the electrodes to minimize the nonspecific adsorption of proteases. Low nonspecific adsorption allows a highly reproducible sensor response. Electrochemical-chemical (EC) redox cycling involving p-aminophenol (AP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) is performed to obtain a high signal-to-background ratio. After adding a C-terminally AP-labeled oligopeptide, DTT, and LAP simultaneously to a sample solution, no further treatment of the solution is necessary during detection. The detection limits of BoNT/E-LC in phosphate-buffered saline are 0.1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min and 5 fg mL(-1) for an incubation period of 4 h. The detection limit in commercial bottled water is 1 ng mL(-1) for an incubation period of 15 min. The developed sensor is selective to BoNT/E-LC among the four types of BoNTs tested. These results indicate that the protease sensor meets the requirements for POCT.

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