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#26034986   2015/06/03 Save this To Up

Proximity Ligation In situ Assay is a Powerful Tool to Monitor Specific ATG Protein Interactions following Autophagy Induction.

Macroautophagy is a highly regulated intracellular degradation process which has been extensively studied over the last decade. This pathway has been initially described as a non selective process inducing the degradation of parts of the cytoplasm as well as organelles at random. Nevertheless, over the last few years, new research highlighted the existence of a more selective autophagy pathway specifically recruiting some organelles or aggregates to the autophagosomes in order to induce their degradation. These selective autophagy pathways such as aggrephagy, mitophagy, pexophagy or xenophagy, involve the intervention of a cargo, the material to be degraded, cargo adapters, the molecules allowing the recruitment of the cargo to the autophagosome, and the proteins of the ATG8 family which link the cargo adapters to the autophagosome. One of the main questions which now remain is to develop new techniques and protocols able to discriminate between these different types of induced autophagy. In our work, we studied the possibility to use the P-LISA technique, which has been recently developed to study endogenous in vivo protein interactions, as a new technique to characterize the ATG proteins specifically involved in bulk or selective autophagy. In this manuscript, we indeed demonstrate that this technique allows the study of endogenous ATG protein interactions in cells following autophagy induction, but more interestingly that this technique might be used to characterize the ATG proteins involved in selective autophagy.

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#25484075   2015/01/29 Save this To Up

HIF1A regulates xenophagic degradation of adherent and invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC).

The hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF1 activates autophagy, a general catabolic pathway involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Dysfunction in both autophagy and HIF1 has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn disease (CD). Adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) colonize ileal mucosa of CD patients and strongly promote gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders by activation of HIF-dependent responses. Here, we aim to characterize the contribution of HIF1 in xenophagy, a specialized form of autophagy involved in the degradation of intracellular bacteria. Our results showed that endogenous HIF1A knockdown increased AIEC survival in intestinal epithelial cells. We demonstrate that the increase in survival rate correlates with a dramatic impairment of the autophagic flux at the autolysosomal maturation step. Furthermore, we show that AIEC remained within single-membrane LC3-II-positive vesicles and that they were unable to induce the phosphorylation of ULK1. These results suggested that, in the absence of HIF1A, AIEC were found within LC3-associated phagosomes. Using blocking antibodies against TLR5 and CEACAM6, the 2 well-known AIEC-bound receptors, we showed that downstream receptor signaling was necessary to mediate ULK1 phosphorylation. Finally, we provide evidence that HIF1 mediates CEACAM6 expression and that CEACAM6 is necessary to recruit ULK1 in a bacteria-containing signaling hub. Collectively, these results identify a new function for HIF1 in AIEC-dedicated xenophagy, and suggest that coactivation of autophagy and HIF1A expression may be a potential new therapy to resolve AIEC infection in CD patients.

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#23142642   2013/01/25 Save this To Up

Identifying protein partners of CLN8, an ER-resident protein involved in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cognitive and motor decline, epilepsy, visual loss and by lysosomal autofluorescent inclusions. Two distinct clinical phenotypes, the progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) and a late-infantile variant of NCLs (CLN8-vLINCL) are associated with mutations in the CLN8 gene that encodes a transmembrane protein predominantly located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To gain insight into the function of CLN8 protein, we employed the split-ubiquitin membrane-based yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) system, which detects protein-protein interactions in a membrane environment, using the full-length human CLN8 as bait and a human brain cDNA library as prey. We identified several potential protein partners of CLN8 and especially referred to VAPA, c14orf1/hERG28, STX8, GATE16, BNIP3 and BNIP3L proteins that are associated with biologically relevant processes such as synthesis and transport of lipids, vesicular/membrane trafficking, autophagy/mitophagy and apoptosis. Interactions of CLN8 with VAPA and GATE16 were further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mammalian cells. Using a new C-terminal-oriented CLN8 antibody, CLN8-VAPA interaction was also confirmed by co-staining in close spatial proximity within different CNS tissues. The results of this study shed light on potential interactome networks of CLN8 and provide a powerful starting point for understanding protein function(s) and molecular aspects of diseases associated with CLN8 deficiency.

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#22205156   2012/02/29 Save this To Up

Delineation of apoptotic genes for synergistic apoptosis of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in human renal cell carcinoma cells by polymerase chain reaction array.

Lexatumumab, a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2), is a promising molecular-targeted therapeutic agent. Our past study indicated that low concentrations of doxorubicin sensitized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis. The present study was designed to examine the cellular and molecular effects of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in RCC cells. The treatment of human RCC cells with lexatumumab in combination with anthracyclines, epirubicin, and pirarubicin had a synergistic cytotoxicity. A marked synergistic apoptosis was induced by lexatumumab in combination with epirubicin or pirarubicin. Epirubicin and pirarubicin significantly increased the TRAIL-R2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels. The combination-induced cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed by the human recombinant DR5:Fc chimeric protein. To further explore the molecular mechanisms in this synergistic cytotoxicity with lexatumumab and anthracyclines, the changes in 84 apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Among these genes, 18 (CD40LG, FASLG, LTA, TNSF7, FAS, BAG3, BAK1, BAX, BID, BIK, BCL10, caspase-1, caspase-5, caspase-6, caspase-10, TNF receptor-associated factor 1, PYCARD, and CIDEA) were significantly upregulated and eight (TNF receptor-associated factor 4, TNFRSF11B, TNF, BCL2, BCL2L1, BNIP3L, caspase-9, and DAPK1) were downregulated at mRNA levels in RCC cells cotreated with lexatumumab and epirubicin. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA levels of PYCARD and CIDEA was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. The present study demonstrates that anthracylines sensitize RCC cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis by inducing TRAIL-R2 expression, and the utility of PCR array to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic apoptosis.

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#21490427   2011/06/17 Save this To Up

The acquisition of resistance to TNFα in breast cancer cells is associated with constitutive activation of autophagy as revealed by a transcriptome analysis using a custom microarray.

While the autophagic process is mainly regulated at the post-translational level, a growing body of evidence suggests that autophagy might also be regulated at the transcriptional level. The identification of transcription factors involved in the regulation of autophagy genes has provided compelling evidence for such regulation. In this context, a powerful high throughput analysis tool to simultaneously monitor the expression level of autophagy genes is urgently needed. Here we describe setting up the first comprehensive human autophagy database (HADb, available at www.autophagy.lu) and the development of a companion Human Autophagy-dedicated cDNA Microarray which comprises 234 genes involved in or related to autophagy. The autophagy microarray tool used on breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line allowed the identification of 47 differentially expressed autophagy genes associated with the acquisition of resistance to the cytotoxic effect of TNFα. The autophagy-core machinery genes DRAM (Damage-Regulated Autophagy Modulator), BNIP3L (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3-like), BECN1 (Beclin 1), GABARAP (Gamma-AminoButyric Acid Receptor-Associated Protein) and UVRAG (UV radiation resistance associated gene) were found upregulated in TNF-resistant cells, suggesting a constitutive activation of the autophagy machinery in these cells. More interestingly, we identified NPC1 as the most upregulated genes in TNF-resistant compared to TNF-sensitive MCF-7 cells, suggesting a relation between the intracellular transport of cholesterol, the regulation of autophagy and NPC1 expression in TNF-resistant tumor cells. In conclusion, we describe here new tools that may help investigating autophagy gene regulation in various cellular models and diseases.

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#16219518   2005/10/12 Save this To Up

Placental localization and expression of the cell death factors BNip3 and Nix in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and HELLP syndrome.

BNip3 and its homologue Nix are pro-apoptotic factors of the Bcl-2-family and are expressed in malignant tumors. In vitro, this expression was shown to be mediated by hypoxia. Recently, it has been shown that placental hypoxia as well as apoptosis are pathogenetic factors for pregnancy-induced hypertensive diseases and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of the study was to analyze placental expression of BNip3 and Nix in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome and IUGR.

2754 related Products with: Placental localization and expression of the cell death factors BNip3 and Nix in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and HELLP syndrome.

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#16166289   2005/09/16 Save this To Up

Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptors chemosensitizes breast cancer cells through up-regulation of Bnip3L.

Epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR) and EGFR-2 (HER2) have become major targets for cancer treatment. Blocking antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors are being used to silence the activity of these receptors in different tumors with varying efficacy. Thus, a better knowledge on the signaling pathways activated by EGFR and HER2 may help unravel novel therapeutic targets and molecular markers of response. Here, we show that treatment of breast cancer cell lines with blocking antibodies against EGFR (cetuximab) or HER2 (trastuzumab) promotes the specific induction of proapoptotic Bnip3L and chemosensitization. Moreover, we found that the Bnip3L gene is transcriptionally activated by FoxO3a. Trastuzumab-mediated induction of Bnip3L and nuclear translocation of FoxO3a was also shown in pleural effusion cells from a breast cancer patient. Transfection of breast cancer cells with constitutively active FoxO3a or with Bnip3L promotes sensitization to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. On the contrary, blockade of Bnip3L expression by a small interfering RNA strategy significantly diminished the chemosensitizing effect of cetuximab. We found also an inverse correlation between EGFR and Bnip3L expression in surgical specimens from patients with breast cancer. Therefore, blockading EGFR or HER2 specifically up-regulates Bnip3L, which is required for chemosensitization of breast cancer cells. This novel pathway provides also the rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed to induce the expression of Bnip3L.

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#12879018   2003/07/24 Save this To Up

BNIP3 plays a role in hypoxic cell death in human epithelial cells that is inhibited by growth factors EGF and IGF.

Hypoxic regions within solid tumors are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. BNIP3 (Bcl-2/E1B 19 kDa interacting protein) is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in hypoxic regions of tumors. During hypoxia, BNIP3 expression is increased in many cell types and upon forced overexpression BNIP3 induces cell death. Herein, we have demonstrated that blockage of hypoxia-induced BNIP3 expression using antisense oligonucleotides against BNIP3 or blockage of BNIP3 function through expression of a mutant form of BNIP3 inhibits hypoxia-induced cell death in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We have also determined that hypoxia-mediated BNIP3 expression is regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in human epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, HIF-1alpha directly binds to a consensus HIF-1alpha-responsive element (HRE) in the human BNIP3 promoter that upon mutation of this HRE site eliminates the hypoxic responsiveness of the promoter. Since BNIP3 is expressed in hypoxic regions of tumors but fails to induce cell death, we determined whether growth factors block BNIP3-induced cell death. Treatment of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or insulin-like growth factor effectively protected these cells from BNIP3-induced cell death. Furthermore, inhibiting EGF receptor signaling using antibodies against ErbB2 (Herceptin) resulted in increased hypoxia-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, BNIP3 plays a role in hypoxia-induced cell death in human epithelial cells that could be circumvented by growth factor signaling.

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#12606722   2003/03/05 Save this To Up

The p53-inducible TSAP6 gene product regulates apoptosis and the cell cycle and interacts with Nix and the Myt1 kinase.

The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis by controlling cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. We have previously described a transcript designated tumor suppressor activated pathway-6 (TSAP6) that is up-regulated in the p53-inducible cell line, LTR6. Cloning of the murine and human full-length TSAP6 cDNA revealed that it encodes a 488-aa protein with five to six transmembrane domains. This gene is the murine and human homologue of the recently published rat pHyde. Antibodies raised against murine and human TSAP6 recognize a 50- to 55-kDa band induced by p53. Analysis of the TSAP6 promoter identified a functional p53-responsive element. Functional studies demonstrated that TSAP6 antisense cDNA diminished levels of the 50- to 55-kDa protein and decreased significantly the levels of p53-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, TSAP6 small interfering RNA inhibited apoptosis in TSAP6-overexpressing cells. Yeast two-hybrid analysis followed by GST/in vitro-transcribed/translated pull-down assays and in vivo coimmunoprecipitations revealed that TSAP6 associated with Nix, a proapoptotic Bcl-2-related protein and the Myt1 kinase, a negative regulator of the G(2)/M transition. Moreover, TSAP6 enhanced the susceptibility of cells to apoptosis and cooperated with Nix to exacerbate this effect. Cell-cycle studies indicated that TSAP6 could augment Myt1 activity. Overall, these data suggest that TSAP6 may act downstream to p53 to interface apoptosis and cell-cycle progression.

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#10922063   2000/09/05 Save this To Up

Expression of the gene encoding the proapoptotic Nip3 protein is induced by hypoxia.

The ability to sense and respond to changes in oxygen availability is critical for many developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including angiogenesis, control of blood pressure, and cerebral and myocardial ischemia. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)containing member of the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) family of transcription factors that plays a central role in the response to hypoxia. HIF-1alpha, and its relatives HIF-2alpha/endothelial PAS domain protein (EPAS) and HIF-3alpha, are induced in response to hypoxia and serve to coordinately activate the expression of target genes whose products facilitate cell survival under conditions of oxygen deprivation. When cells are exposed to chronic hypoxia, the protective response can fail, resulting in apoptosis. This study shows that transcription of the gene encoding Nip3, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of cell death factors, is strongly induced in response to hypoxia. The Nip3 promoter contains a functional HIF-1-responsive element (HRE) and is potently activated by both hypoxia and forced expression of HIF-1alpha. Exposure of cultured cells to chronic hypoxia results in the accumulation of a protein recognized by antibodies raised against Nip3. This study demonstrates a direct link between HIF-1alpha and a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and offers a reasonable physiological function for members of the Bcl-2 subfamily, including Nip3 and its close relative Nix. These observations indicate that Nip3 may play a dedicated role in the pathological progression of hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, as observed after ischemic injury.

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