Search results for: Bismuth, powder
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Chemical Composition and Porosity Characteristics of Various Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cements.Chemical composition and porosity characteristics of calcium silicate-based endodontic cements are important determinants of their clinical performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and porosity characteristics of various calcium silicate-based endodontic cements: MTA-angelus, Bioaggregate, Biodentine, Micromega MTA, Ortho MTA, and ProRoot MTA. The specific surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were measured by the porosimetry analysis of N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Chemical composition and powder analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were also carried out on these endodontic cements. Biodentine and MTA-angelus showed the smallest pore volume and pore diameter, respectively. Specific surface area was the largest in MTA-angelus. SEM and EDS analysis showed that Bioaggregate and Biodentine contained homogenous, round and small particles, which did not contain bismuth oxide.
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Wet Chemically Synthesized Bismuth Oxyiodide (BiOI) Quantum Dots for Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green.Using the chelating effect of ethylene glycol, bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) quantum dots were prepared by a liquid phase reaction at room temperature. A variety of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra were used to characterize the morphology, size distribution, crystal phase and photocatalytic degradation performance of BiOI quantum dots. Results show that the prepared BiOI quantum dots have higher photocatalytic activity, and the k value is 20 times higher than that of BiOI nanoflakes.
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X-ray diffraction analysis of MTA mixed and placed with various techniques.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various mixing techniques as well as the effect of ultrasonic placement on hydration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.
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Continuous-feed nanocasting process for the synthesis of bismuth nanowire composites.We present a novel, continuous-feed nanocasting procedure for the synthesis of bismuth nanowire structures embedded in the pores of a mesoporous silica template. The immobilization of a bismuth salt inside the silica template from a diluted metal salt solution yields a sufficiently high loading to obtain electrically conducting bulk nanowire composite samples after reduction and sintering the nanocomposite powders. Electrical resistivity measurements of sintered bismuth nanowires embedded in the silica template reveal size-quantization effects.
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Improved electrical and thermo-mechanical properties of a MWCNT/In-Sn-Bi composite solder reflowing on a flexible PET substrate.Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/indium-tin-bismuth (In-Sn-Bi) composite nanostructures in which In-Sn-Bi nanoparticles have been penetrated by the MWCNT arrays were synthesized using a chemical reduction method. The incorporation of 0.6 wt% MWCNTs with high electrical conductivity into the In-based solder resulted in low minimum electrical resistivity (19.9 ± 1.0 µΩ·cm). Despite being reflowed at the relatively low temperature of 110 °C, the composite solder nanostructures were able to form mechanically stable solder bumps on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate due to the MWCNT arrays with a high thermal conductivity of 3000 W/(m·K) and In-Sn-Bi nanoparticles with a low melting temperature of 98.2 °C. Notably, the composite solder bumps exhibited high flexibility (17.7% resistance increase over 1000 cycles of operation in a bending test) and strong adhesion strength (0.9 N average shear strength in a scratch test) on the plastic substrate because of the presence of mechanically flexible and strong MWCNTs dispersed within the solder matrix materials. These overall properties are due to the improved diffusivity of the composite solder nanostructures by the cover of the In-Sn-Bi nanoparticles along the MWCNT arrays and the network structure formation of the composite solder bumps.
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La/Ce-codoped BiOcomposite photocatalysts with high photocatalytic performance in removal of high concentration dye.A series of La/Ce-codoped BiOcomposite photocatalysts were fabricated via hydrothermal-calcination process. The as-prepared products were intensively characterized by some physicochemical characterizations like Nphysical adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoelectrochemical measurements, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that La and Ce doping induced obvious crystal phase transformation in BiO, from monoclinic to tetragonal phase. La and Ce codoping also gave rise to the obvious synergetic effects, e.g., the lattice contraction of BiO, the decrease of crystal size and the increase of surface area. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared catalysts was evaluated by removal of dye acid orange II with high concentration under visible light irradiation. Results showed that La/Ce-codoped BiOdisplayed much higher photocatalytic performance than that of bare BiO, single La or Ce doped BiOsamples. The superior photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the improved texture and surface properties and the synergistic effects of La and Ce codoping on suppressing the recombination of photo-generated electrons (e) and holes (h).
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Synergic effect of chitosan and dicalcium phosphate on tricalcium silicate-based nanocomposite for root-end dental application.In recent years, cement composites based on calcium silicate have been more generally considered for medical applications. Calcium silicate Cement are among the categories that are used in dental root canal treatment. The aim of this study is to make new calcium silicate cement with dicalcium phosphate and chitosan additives to preserve and strengthen desirable properties of this type of cements. In this study, composite dental cement based on calcium silicate was prepared. Then effect of adding biodegradable and biocompatible polymer such as chitosan on setting properties and its structure were studied. In this study, a combination of calcium silicate, dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and bismuth oxide (BiO) as powder phase and 2% solution of the chitosan dissolved in 1% acetic acid solution as liquid phase, was used. As well as control sample was obtained by mixing the powder with distilled water as the liquid phase. Based on the obtained results, setting time of composite cement was changed from 51 to 67 minutes by adding chitosan polymer. Presence of chitosan also reduced the compressive strength a little. The bioactivity of the cement were studied in a solution of simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days. The samples were analyzed by SEM to identify the microstructure and by XRD to determine crystal structure. The composition of cement before incubation in SBF was included early phases (phase calcium silicate and calcium phosphate) that after 14 days of immersion in SBF, they were converted to layer-shaped hydroxy apatite and the presence of chitosan had not any influence on the final phase of hydroxy apatite.
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Synthesis and Study on Ionic Conductive (Bi,V)OMaterials with a Dual-Phase Microstructure.Homogeneous Bi₂O₃-V₂O₅ powder mixtures with different amounts of V₂O₅ content (≤15 mol%) were prepared by colloidal dispersion and sintering to high density. The sintered and annealed samples were studied by thermal analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical and ionic conductivities of the conductors were also measured by a four-probe direct current (DC) method. The results of the samples prepared at 600-800 °C and annealed for as long as 100 h show that the sintered samples consisting of a pure γ phase or δ + γ binary phase perform differently in conductivity. The highly conductive δ phase in the composition of BiVOenhances the electric conductivity 10-times better than that of the pure γ-sample (BiVO) between 400 and 600 °C. The compatible regions of the γ phase with the α- or δ phase are also reported and discussed, so a part of the previously published Bi₂O₃-V₂O₅ phase diagram below 800 °C is revised.
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Bi(CO)·7HO and Bi(CO)OH Oxalates Thermal Decomposition Revisited. Formation of Nanoparticles with a Lower Melting Point than Bulk Bismuth.Two bismuth oxalates, namely, Bi(CO)·7HO and Bi(CO)OH, were studied in terms of synthesis, structural characterization, particle morphology, and thermal behavior under several atmospheres. The oxalate powders were produced by chemical precipitation from bismuth nitrate and oxalic acid solutions under controlled pH, then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent XRD, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric differential thermal analyses. New results on the thermal decomposition of bismuth oxalates under inert or reducing atmospheres are provided. On heating in nitrogen, both studied compounds decompose into small bismuth particles. Thermal properties of the metallic products were investigated. The Bi(CO)OH decomposition leads to a Bi-BiOmetal-oxide composite product in which bismuth is confined in a nanometric size, due to surface oxidation. The melting point of such bismuth particles is strongly related to their crystallite size. The nanometric bismuth melting has thus been evidenced ∼40 °C lower than for bulk bismuth. These results should contribute to the development of the oxalate precursor route for low-temperature soldering applications.
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Efficient bacterial inactivation with Z-scheme AgI/BiMoOunder visible light irradiation.A novel Z-scheme AgI/BiMoOhybrid photocatalyst was fabricated via a solvothermal-precipitation approach to disinfect bacteria in water. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), as well as photoluminescence spectra (PL) were employed to characterize the fabricated photocatalyst. Due to the stronger redox potential and better separation of charge carriers induced by the Z-scheme structure, the optimal synthesized AgI/BiMoOexhibited excellent disinfection activity towards both Gram-negative strain Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) under visible light irradiation. 5.0 × 10 CFU mLof E. coli and S. aureus cells were completely disinfected within 30 min and 90 min, respectively. Agions did not contribute to the disinfection activity, while active species including h, O, e, and HOcontributed to the cell inactivation. By changing the interaction force and being involved in the photocatalytic reactions, the common anions (Cl, NO, SO, and HPO) would affect the disinfection activity. Moreover, AgI/BiMoOexhibited effective disinfection activity in four consecutive reused cycles. Thus, AgI/BiMoOcould be used as a promising photocatalyst for water disinfection.
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