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MiR-27a Promotes Hemin-Induced Erythroid Differentiation of K562 Cells by Targeting CDC25B.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in erythropoiesis. MiR-23a∼27a∼24-2 clusters have been proven to take part in erythropoiesis via some proteins. CDC25B (cell division control Cdc2 phosphostase B) is also the target of mir-27a; whether it regulates erythropoiesis and its mechanism are unknown.

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A [4+2] Condensation Strategy to Imine-Linked Single-Crystalline Zeolite-Like Zinc Phosphate Frameworks.

Double-4-ring zinc phosphate (D4R), [Zn(dipp)(4-Py-CHO)] (2) (dipp=diiminopyridine), bearing four formyl groups, has been utilized as a building block (SBU) for the synthesis of a new class of imine-linked [4+2] COF-like polycrystalline zinc phosphate frameworks. Reactions of 2 with a series of linear aromatic diamines results in the formation of polycrystalline frameworks [Zn (dipp) (L) ] (3-6) (L=L to L , diimines formed by condensation of 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde with diamines). Employing an alternative synthetic strategy, through a diffusion-controlled slow reaction of 2 with the pre-synthesized 4,4'-bispyridyl bisimine (L ), [Zn (dipp) (L ) ] (5') has been obtained as single crystals. Complex 5' is a 3D-framework, exhibiting a rare eightfold interpenetrated diamondoid network. The long spacer length (19.6 Å) results in extensive entanglement in 5'. Powder diffraction data suggest that these compounds are isoreticular 3D-frameworks. To study the effect of the relative position of pyridyl donors with respect to the central benzidine moiety, 3,3'-bispyridyl bisimine (L ) was investigated as the spacer. A slow reaction of 1 b with L leads to the isolation of a 2D-boxed-sheet coordination polymer [Zn (dipp) (L ) ] (7). Selective formation of 3D-framework 5' from L and the 2D-framework 7 from L is due to the angles created by the coordination of para- and meta-pyridyl nitrogen centers at the zinc centers of the D4R cubane. Compound 5' has been utilized as a catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation.

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Air Toxics in Relation to Autism Diagnosis, Phenotype, and Severity in a U.S. Family-Based Study.

Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

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A novel cerium oxide nanoparticles-based colorimetric sensor using tetramethyl benzidine reagent for antioxidant activity assay.

Antioxidant activity (AOA) assays using nanotechnology are recently developed utilizing nanoparticles of transition metal oxides, especially nanoceria that can switch between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states of cerium. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO-NPs) may act as both an oxidant and an antioxidant, depending on the preparation method and particle size. A novel colorimetric sensor for AOA assay is proposed with the use of poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAANa)-coated CeO-NPs. PAANa-coated CeO-NPs oxidized tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), a peroxidase substrate, in a slightly acidic solution at pH 4.0 to a blue charge-transfer complex. Antioxidants decreased the color intensity of the nanoceria suspension, and were indirectly determined by absorbance difference. Detection limits, linearity, additivity and precision were calculated, e.g., quercetin quantification with the proposed assay showed a detection limit of 8.25 × 10 mol L. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants were compatible with those of conventional antioxidant assays. Potential interferents such as glucose, citric acid, mannitol, sorbitol and benzoic acid did not adversely affect AOA determination. The developed sensor is more sensitive and selective than similar colorimetric sensors relying on the intrinsic color change of nanoceria. The measurement wavelength is sufficiently red-shifted, preventing possible interferences from plant pigments.

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Bis-2(5H)-furanone derivatives as new anticancer agents: Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and mechanism studies.

New bis-2(5H)-furanone derivatives containing a benzidine core were synthesized via a one-step transition-metal-free reaction of benzidine with 5-substituted 3,4-dihalo-2(5H)-furanones. Their antitumor activities against various tumor cells have been evaluated by MTT assay. Among them, compound 4e exhibits significant inhibitory activity against C6 glioma cells with an IC value of 12.1 μm and low toxicity toward HaCaT human normal cells. Studies on the antitumor mechanism reveal that cell cycle arrest at S-phase in C6 cells is induced by compound 4e. Furthermore, investigations with electronic, fluorescence emission and circular dichroism spectra show that compound 4e can significantly interact with C6-DNA. These data indicate that DNA may be one of the potential targets for bis-2(5H)-furanone derivatives as anticancer drugs.

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Benzidine Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Bladder Cancer Cells through Activation of ERK5 Pathway.

Benzidine, a known carcinogen, is closely associated with the development of bladder cancer (BC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical pathophysiological process in BC progression. The underlying molecular mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, especially extracellular regulated protein kinases 5 (ERK5), in regulating benzidine-induced EMT remains unclarified. Hence, two human bladder cell lines, T24 and EJ, were utilized in our study. Briefly, cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay, and cell invasion was determined by Transwell assay. Quantitative PCR and western blot were utilized to determine both gene expressions as well as protein levels of EMT and MAPK, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected to further determine ERK5 function. As a result, the migration and invasion abilities were enhanced, epithelial marker expression was decreased while mesenchymal marker expression was increased in human BC cell lines. Meanwhile, benzidine administration led to activation of ERK5 and activator protein 1 (AP-1) proteins, without effective stimulation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 pathways. Moreover, Benzidine-induced EMT and ERK5 activation were completely suppressed by XMD8-92 and siRNAs specific to ERK5. Of note, ERK1/2 was activated in benzidine-treated T24 cells, while benzidine-induced EMT could not be reversed by U0126, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, as indicated by further study. Collectively, our findings revealed that ERK5-mediated EMT was critically involved in benzidine-correlated BC progression, indicating the therapeutic significance of ERK5 in benzidine-related BC.

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Mechanism of anaerobic bio-reduction of azo dye assisted with lawsone-immobilized activated carbon.

Lawsone redox (LQ) mediator was covalently bound to granular activated carbon (GAC) by Fischer esterification. A high LQ adsorption capacity on GAC was achieved (∼230 mg/g), and desorption studies showed strong chemical stability. Furthermore, kinetic experiments with solid-phase redox mediator (RM) and their controls (soluble RM, GAC and anaerobic sludge) were tested for decolorization of congo red dye at initial concentration of 175 mg/L. Benzidine, a by-product of complete congo red reduction, was also measured by HPLC analysis along the kinetic experiments. The highest percentage of decolorization after 24 h of incubation was achieved in cultures with soluble (77%) and immobilized (70%) LQ. In contrast, low decolorization efficiency was reached in anaerobic bio-reduction assays with unmodified GAC (47%) and anaerobic sludge (28%) after 24 h. Removal of congo red by adsorption onto LQ-GAC was negligible. The rate of benzidine production was slower than decolorization rate, suggesting that one azo bond of congo red is selectively broke and followed by a slower breaking of the second azo bond, consequently, appearance of benzidine in solution. These issues could be attributed to the steric rearrangement and the inhibitory effects of the produced aromatic amines in the biotransformation process.

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Investigation of phase separated polyimide blend films containing boron nitride using FTIR imaging.

Immiscible aromatic polyimide (PI) blend films and a PI blend film incorporated with thermally conductive boron nitride (BN) were prepared, and their phase separation behaviors were examined by optical microscopy and FTIR imaging. The 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine (TFMB)-containing and 4,4'-thiodianiline (TDA)-containing aromatic PI blend films and a PI blend/BN composite film show two clearly separated regions; one region is the TFMB-rich phase, and the other region is the TDA-rich phase. The introduction of BN induces morphological changes in the immiscible aromatic PI blend film without altering the composition of either domain. In particular, the BN is selectively incorporated into the TDA-rich phase in this study.

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Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides) than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.

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A dual-cell device designed as an oxidase mimic and its use for the study of oxidase-like nanozymes.

A dual-cell device has been designed as an oxidase-like mimic with the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a model reaction. This dual-cell device could be also used to study oxidase-like nanozymes. It was found that only the catalytic sites for oxygen reduction are essential and necessary for oxidase-like nanozymes.

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