Search results for: Barium Fluoride
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Image Information Obtained Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera During an Immersion Liquid Evaporation Process for Measuring the Refractive Index of Solid Particles.The refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a medium, which can be used for the identification and purity issues of all media. Here we describe a refractive index measurement technique to determine simultaneously the refractive index of different solid particles by monitoring the transmittance of light from a suspension using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An important feature of the measurement is the liquid evaporation process for the refractive index matching of the solid particle and the immersion liquid; this was realized by using a pair of volatile and non-volatile immersion liquids. In this study, refractive indices of calcium fluoride (CaF) and barium fluoride (BaF) were determined using the proposed method.
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Effect of crystalline family and orientation on stimulated Brillouin scattering in whispering-gallery mode resonators.Ultra-high Q whispering-gallery mode resonators pumped by a continuous-wave laser are known to enhance stimulated Brillouin scattering when optimal resonance and phase-matching conditions are met. In crystalline resonators, this process depends critically on the crystal orientation and family, which impose the elastic constants defining the velocity of the acoustic waves. In this article, we investigate the effect of crystalline orientation and family on this velocity which is proportional to the Brillouin frequency down-shift. In particular, the study is based on the development of a model and numerical simulations of acoustic wave velocities that propagate along the periphery of four fluoride crystals, namely calcium, magnesium, lithium and barium fluoride. We find that depending on the crystal and its orientation, the frequency excursion around the Brillouin offset can vary from few tens of kHz to more than a GHz.
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Benchmarking Geant4 hadronic models for prompt-γ monitoring in carbon ion therapy.The real-time monitoring of the spread-out Bragg peak would allow the planned dose delivered during treatment to be directly verified, but this poses a major challenge in modern ion beam therapy. A possible method to achieve this goal is to exploit the production of secondary particles by the nuclear reactions of the beam with the patient and correlate their emission profile to the planned target volume position. In this study, we present both the production rate and energy spectra of the prompt-γ produced by the interactions of theC ion beam with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) target. We also assess three different Monte Carlo models for prompt-γ simulation based on our experimental data.
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On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF.We have investigated the bulk and surface properties of the group II metal fluorides CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations and surface thermodynamics. Our bulk results show that the best agreement with experiment is achieved with the B3LYP and PBE functionals. We determined the relative importance of the low index surfaces in vacuum and found that an fluoride microcrystal exposes only the (111) surface in which the undercoordinated cations are sevenfold coordinated. With methods of ab initio surface thermodynamics, we analyzed the stability of different surfaces under hydrogen fluoride (HF) pressure and determined the presumable shape of the crystals with respect to different HF concentrations and temperatures. In the case of CaF 2 and SrF 2 , the calculated shapes of the crystals agree well with TEM images of fluorolytic sol-gel synthesized nanocrystals at room temperature and high HF concentration.
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Collecting Quality Infrared Spectra from Microscopic Samples of Suspicious Powders in a Sealed Cell.The infrared (IR) microspectroscopical analysis of samples within a sealed-cell containing barium fluoride is a critical need when identifying toxic agents or suspicious powders of unidentified composition. The dispersive nature of barium fluoride is well understood and experimental conditions can be easily adjusted during reflection-absorption measurements to account for differences in focus between the visible and IR regions of the spectrum. In most instances, the ability to collect a viable spectrum is possible when using the sealed cell regardless of whether visible or IR focus is optimized. However, when IR focus is optimized, it is possible to collect useful data from even smaller samples. This is important when a minimal sample is available for analysis or the desire to minimize risk of sample exposure is important. While the use of barium fluoride introduces dispersion effects that are unavoidable, it is possible to adjust instrument settings when collecting IR spectra in the reflection-absorption mode to compensate for dispersion and minimize impact on the quality of the sample spectrum.
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Universal nonlinear scattering in ultra-high Q whispering gallery-mode resonators.Universal nonlinear scattering processes such as Brillouin, Raman, and Kerr effects are fundamental light-matter interactions of particular theoretical and experimental importance. They originate from the interaction of a laser field with an optical medium at the lattice, molecular, and electronic scale, respectively. These nonlinear effects are generally observed and analyzed separately, because they do not often occur concomitantly. In this article, we report the simultaneous excitation of these three fundamental interactions in mm-size ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators under continuous wave pumping. Universal nonlinear scattering is demonstrated in barium fluoride and strontium fluoride, separately. We further propose a unified theory based on a spatiotemporal formalism for the understanding of this phenomenology.
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Giant thermo-optical relaxation oscillations in millimeter-size whispering gallery mode disk resonators.In this Letter, we show that giant thermo-optical oscillations can be triggered in millimeter (mm)-size whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonators when they are pumped by a resonant continuous-wave laser. Our resonator is an ultrahigh-Q barium fluoride cavity that features a positive thermo-optic coefficient and a negative thermo-elastic coefficient. We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that the complex interplay between these two thermic coefficients and the intrinsic Kerr nonlinearity yields very sharp slow-fast relaxation oscillations with a slow timescale that can be exceptionally large, typically of the order of 1 s. We use a time-domain model to gain understanding into this instability, and we find that both the experimental and theoretical results are in excellent agreement. The understanding of these thermal effects is an essential requirement for every WGM-related application and our study demonstrates that even in the case of mm-size resonators, such effects can still be accurately analyzed using nonlinear time-domain models.
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On the dispersion management of fluorite whispering-gallery mode resonators for Kerr optical frequency comb generation in the telecom and mid-infrared range.Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been very attracting platforms for versatile Kerr frequency comb generations. We report a systematic study on the material dispersion of various optical materials that are capable of supporting quality factors above 109. Using an analytical approximation of WGM resonant frequencies in disk resonators, we investigate the effect of the geometry and transverse mode order on the total group-velocity dispersion (GVD). We demonstrate that the major radii and the radial mode indices play an important role in tailoring the GVD of WGM resonators. In particular, our study shows that in WGM disk-resonators, the polar families of modes have very similar GVD, while the radial families of modes feature dispersion values that can differ by up to several orders of magnitude. The effect of these giant dispersion shifts are experimentally evidenced in Kerr comb generation with magnesium fluoride. From a more general perspective, this critical feature enables to push the zero-dispersion wavelength of fluorite crystals towards the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, thereby allowing for efficient Kerr comb generation in that spectral range. We show that barium fluoride is the most interesting crystal in this regard, due to its zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) at 1.93 μm and an optimal dispersion profile in the mid-IR regime. We expect our results to facilitate the design of different platforms for Kerr frequency comb generations in both telecommunication and mid-IR spectral ranges.
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Optical transitions of Ho(3+) in oxyfluoride glasses and upconversion luminescence of Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.Optical properties of Ho(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied.
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Influencing supercontinuum generation by phase distorting an ultrashort laser pulse.We show that the spectral distribution of the supercontinuum (SC) generated in barium fluoride is amenable to alteration simply by controlling the second- and third-order phase distortion of incident femtosecond-duration pulses. The second- and third-order phase distortions are controlled by an acoustic-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF). The spectral extent on the blue side of the SC is influenced by independently varying the phase distortion of an ultrashort laser pulse.
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