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#28586136   2017/06/06 Save this To Up

Benchmarking Geant4 hadronic models for prompt-γ monitoring in carbon ion therapy.

The real-time monitoring of the spread-out Bragg peak would allow the planned dose delivered during treatment to be directly verified, but this poses a major challenge in modern ion beam therapy. A possible method to achieve this goal is to exploit the production of secondary particles by the nuclear reactions of the beam with the patient and correlate their emission profile to the planned target volume position. In this study, we present both the production rate and energy spectra of the prompt-γ produced by the interactions of the (12) C ion beam with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) target. We also assess three different Monte Carlo models for prompt-γ simulation based on our experimental data.

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#28430134   2017/04/21 Save this To Up

On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF.

We have investigated the bulk and surface properties of the group II metal fluorides CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations and surface thermodynamics. Our bulk results show that the best agreement with experiment is achieved with the B3LYP and PBE functionals. We determined the relative importance of the low index surfaces in vacuum and found that an fluoride microcrystal exposes only the (111) surface in which the undercoordinated cations are sevenfold coordinated. With methods of ab initio surface thermodynamics, we analyzed the stability of different surfaces under hydrogen fluoride (HF) pressure and determined the presumable shape of the crystals with respect to different HF concentrations and temperatures. In the case of CaF 2 and SrF 2 , the calculated shapes of the crystals agree well with TEM images of fluorolytic sol-gel synthesized nanocrystals at room temperature and high HF concentration.

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#27645723   2016/09/20 Save this To Up

Collecting Quality Infrared Spectra from Microscopic Samples of Suspicious Powders in a Sealed Cell.

The infrared (IR) microspectroscopical analysis of samples within a sealed-cell containing barium fluoride is a critical need when identifying toxic agents or suspicious powders of unidentified composition. The dispersive nature of barium fluoride is well understood and experimental conditions can be easily adjusted during reflection-absorption measurements to account for differences in focus between the visible and IR regions of the spectrum. In most instances, the ability to collect a viable spectrum is possible when using the sealed cell regardless of whether visible or IR focus is optimized. However, when IR focus is optimized, it is possible to collect useful data from even smaller samples. This is important when a minimal sample is available for analysis or the desire to minimize risk of sample exposure is important. While the use of barium fluoride introduces dispersion effects that are unavoidable, it is possible to adjust instrument settings when collecting IR spectra in the reflection-absorption mode to compensate for dispersion and minimize impact on the quality of the sample spectrum.

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#27410640   2016/07/14 Save this To Up

Universal nonlinear scattering in ultra-high Q whispering gallery-mode resonators.

Universal nonlinear scattering processes such as Brillouin, Raman, and Kerr effects are fundamental light-matter interactions of particular theoretical and experimental importance. They originate from the interaction of a laser field with an optical medium at the lattice, molecular, and electronic scale, respectively. These nonlinear effects are generally observed and analyzed separately, because they do not often occur concomitantly. In this article, we report the simultaneous excitation of these three fundamental interactions in mm-size ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators under continuous wave pumping. Universal nonlinear scattering is demonstrated in barium fluoride and strontium fluoride, separately. We further propose a unified theory based on a spatiotemporal formalism for the understanding of this phenomenology.

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#26274672   2015/08/15 Save this To Up

Giant thermo-optical relaxation oscillations in millimeter-size whispering gallery mode disk resonators.

In this Letter, we show that giant thermo-optical oscillations can be triggered in millimeter (mm)-size whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonators when they are pumped by a resonant continuous-wave laser. Our resonator is an ultrahigh-Q barium fluoride cavity that features a positive thermo-optic coefficient and a negative thermo-elastic coefficient. We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that the complex interplay between these two thermic coefficients and the intrinsic Kerr nonlinearity yields very sharp slow-fast relaxation oscillations with a slow timescale that can be exceptionally large, typically of the order of 1 s. We use a time-domain model to gain understanding into this instability, and we find that both the experimental and theoretical results are in excellent agreement. The understanding of these thermal effects is an essential requirement for every WGM-related application and our study demonstrates that even in the case of mm-size resonators, such effects can still be accurately analyzed using nonlinear time-domain models.

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#25835917   2015/04/03 Save this To Up

On the dispersion management of fluorite whispering-gallery mode resonators for Kerr optical frequency comb generation in the telecom and mid-infrared range.

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been very attracting platforms for versatile Kerr frequency comb generations. We report a systematic study on the material dispersion of various optical materials that are capable of supporting quality factors above 109. Using an analytical approximation of WGM resonant frequencies in disk resonators, we investigate the effect of the geometry and transverse mode order on the total group-velocity dispersion (GVD). We demonstrate that the major radii and the radial mode indices play an important role in tailoring the GVD of WGM resonators. In particular, our study shows that in WGM disk-resonators, the polar families of modes have very similar GVD, while the radial families of modes feature dispersion values that can differ by up to several orders of magnitude. The effect of these giant dispersion shifts are experimentally evidenced in Kerr comb generation with magnesium fluoride. From a more general perspective, this critical feature enables to push the zero-dispersion wavelength of fluorite crystals towards the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, thereby allowing for efficient Kerr comb generation in that spectral range. We show that barium fluoride is the most interesting crystal in this regard, due to its zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) at 1.93 μm and an optimal dispersion profile in the mid-IR regime. We expect our results to facilitate the design of different platforms for Kerr frequency comb generations in both telecommunication and mid-IR spectral ranges.

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#25703369   2015/03/09 Save this To Up

Optical transitions of Ho(3+) in oxyfluoride glasses and upconversion luminescence of Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.

Optical properties of Ho(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Ho(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied.

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#25679854   2015/02/14 Save this To Up

Influencing supercontinuum generation by phase distorting an ultrashort laser pulse.

We show that the spectral distribution of the supercontinuum (SC) generated in barium fluoride is amenable to alteration simply by controlling the second- and third-order phase distortion of incident femtosecond-duration pulses. The second- and third-order phase distortions are controlled by an acoustic-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF). The spectral extent on the blue side of the SC is influenced by independently varying the phase distortion of an ultrashort laser pulse.

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#25607181   2015/01/22 Save this To Up

Design and production of antireflection coating for the 8-10 µm spectral region.

A special design procedure allowing to trap layer thicknesses inside specified limits is applied for designing of antireflection coating (AR) for the infrared spectral band of 8-10 µm. The obtained AR design has no too thick layers that may cause delaminating of the deposited AR coating. A special monitoring procedure taking into account wavelength positions of monitoring signal extrema is applied for coating deposition. The manufactured coating features excellent AR properties in the requested spectral region and possesses high mechanical stability.

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#25516910   2015/03/16 Save this To Up

Label-free phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes by infrared imaging.

It is now widely accepted that the immune microenvironment of tumors and more precisely Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) play an important role in cancer development and outcome. TILs are considered to be important prognostic and predictive factors based on a growing body of clinical evidence; however, their presence at the tumor site is not currently assessed routinely. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) imaging has proven it has value in studying a range of tumors, particularly for characterizing tumor cells. Currently, very little is known about the potential for FTIR imaging to characterize TIL. The present proof of concept study investigates the ability of FTIR imaging to identify the principal lymphocyte subpopulations present in human peripheral blood (PB). A negative cell isolation method was employed to select pure, label-free, helper T cells (CD4(+)), cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)) and B cells (CD19(+)) from six healthy donors PB by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). Cells were centrifuged onto Barium Fluoride windows and ten infrared images were recorded for each lymphocyte subpopulation from all six donors. After spectral pre-treatment, statistical analyses were performed. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses (PCA) revealed that in the absence of donor variability, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells and B cells each display distinct IR spectral features. Supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) demonstrated that the differences between the three lymphocyte subpopulations are reflected in their IR spectra, permitting their individual identification even when significant donor variability is present. Our results also show that a distinct spectral signature is associated with antibody binding. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting that FTIR imaging can effectively identify T and B lymphocytes and differentiate helper T cells from cytotoxic T cells. This proof of concept study demonstrates that FTIR imaging is a reliable tool for the identification of lymphocyte subpopulations and has the potential for use in characterizing TIL.

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