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#29458174   // Save this To Up

Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.

Insect nephrocytes provide a valuable model for kidney disease, as they are structurally and functionally homologous to mammalian kidney podocytes. They possess an exceptional macromolecular assembly, the nephrocyte diaphragm (ND), which serves as a filtration barrier and helps maintain tissue homeostasis by filtering out wastes and toxic products. However, the elements that maintain nephrocyte architecture and the ND are not understood. We show that Drosophila nephrocytes have a unique cytoplasmic cluster of F-actin, which is maintained by the microtubule cytoskeleton and Rho-GTPases. A balance of Rac1 and Cdc42 activity as well as proper microtubule organization and endoplasmic reticulum structure, are required to position the actin cluster. Further, ND proteins Sns and Duf also localize to this cluster and regulate organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Perturbation of any of these inter-dependent components impairs nephrocyte ultrafiltration. Thus cytoskeletal components, Rho-GTPases and ND proteins work in concert to maintain the specialized nephrocyte architecture and function.

1407 related Products with: Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.

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The paradox of marrow adipose tissue in anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inappropriate nutrient intake resulting in low body weight. Multiple hormonal adaptations facilitate decreased energy expenditure in this state of caloric deprivation including non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth hormone resistance, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Although these hormonal adaptations confer a survival advantage during periods of negative energy balance, they contribute to the long-term medical complications associated with AN, the most common of which is significant bone loss and an increased risk of fracture. In recent years, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has emerged as an important potential determinant of the low bone mass state characteristic of AN. Unlike subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots which are low in AN, MAT levels are paradoxically elevated and are inversely associated with BMD. In this review, we discuss what is known about MAT in AN and the proposed hormonal determinants of this adipose tissue depot.

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Sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives of metformin can exert anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic properties.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised not only by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance but also an impaired balance between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of metformin, a widely-used oral anti-diabetic drug, phenformin and eight sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives of metformin on several haemostasis parameters. Thrombin Time (TT) tests were performed according to the available commercial method. The activity of factor X was conducted based on deficient plasma factor X. The activity of two main enzymes involved in haemostasis, thrombin and plasmin, was measured spectrophotometrically with chromogenic substrates. Protein C and antithrombin III (AT) activity assays using chromogenic substrates were conducted to determine the effect of the derivatives of metformin on these both naturally occurring anticoagulants. Two of the compounds, sulfenamide with hexyl tail and para-nitro-benzenesulfonamide significantly shortened TT. ortho-nitro sulfonamide at a concentration of 0.3-1.5 μmol/mL contributed to a significant decrease in the activity of factor X. However, sulfenamides with cyclohexyl, butyl and branched ethyl-hexyl tails at 1.5 of μmol/mL increased its activity, and simultaneously shortened PT. Additionally, ortho-nitro-benzenesulfonamide at concentrations of 1.5 μmol/mL was found to significantly decrease reaction velocity (↓ dA/dt) in the thrombin activity assay. On contrary, it was noticed that branched sulfenamide at the concentration of 1.5 μmol/mL significantly increased the enzymatic activity of plasmin. Metformin, phenformin and octyl and butyl sulfenamides were associated with a significant increase in the activity of AT. Hexyl sulfenamide and para-nitro- as well as para-trifluoro-ortho-nitro-benzenesulfonamide contributed to the decrease in the activity of protein C, while the other tested compounds did not affect its activity. In conclusion, 2-nitro-benzenesulfonamide derivative of metformin presents highly beneficial anticoagulant properties. This compound is therefore promising candidate for further in vitro and in vivo studies.

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Detection of acute and long-term effects of concussion: dual-task gait balance control vs. computerized neurocognitive test.

Our aim was to examine the acute (within 72 hours of injury) and long-term (2 months post-injury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls.

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The TyG index cutoff point and its association with body adiposity and lifestyle in children.

To investigate the factors associated with insulin resistance in children aged 4-7 years, and to identify the cutoff point of the triglyceride-glucose index for the prediction of IR in this population.

2056 related Products with: The TyG index cutoff point and its association with body adiposity and lifestyle in children.

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Pyrazole-Tetrazole Hybrid bearing the Trinitromethyl, Fluorodinitromethyl or (Difluoroamino)dinitromethyl Groups: High-Performance Energetic Materials.

High nitrogen compounds have acquired great scientific interest and technological importance because of their unique energy content, and they find diverse applications in many fields of science and technology. Understanding of structure-property relationship trends as well as how to modify them is of paramount importance for their further improvement. Herein, we have used installation of oxygen-rich modules, C(NO2)3, C(NO2)2F or C(NO2)2NF2, to a endothermic framework, that is combination of nitropyrazole unit and tetrazole ring, as a way to design novel energetic compounds. Density, oxygen balance, and enthalpy of formation are enhanced by the presence of the above units. The structures of all compounds were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. For the crystal packing analysis we proposed to use new criterion ΔOED that can be served as a measure of tightness of molecular packing upon crystal formation. Overall the materials show promising detonation and propulsion parameters.

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Low T3 syndrome as a predictor of poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Low triiodothyronine (T3) state is associated with poor prognosis in critical acute and prolonged illness. However, the information on thyroid dysfunction and cancer is limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low T3 syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with detailed thyroid hormone profile at CLL diagnosis were enrolled. Low T3 syndrome was defined by low free T3 (FT3) level accompanied by normal-to-low free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. A propensity score-matched method was performed to balance the baseline characteristics. Multivariate Cox regression analyses screened the independent prognostic factors related to time-to-first-treatment (TTFT) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Area under the curve (AUC) assessed the predictive accuracy of CLL-International Prognostic Index (IPI) together with low T3 syndrome. The results showed that 37 (14.34%) patients had low T3 syndrome, which was significantly associated with unfavorable TTFT and CSS in the propensity-matched cohort, and it was an independent prognostic indicator for both TTFT and CSS. Serum FT3 level was positively related to protein metabolism and anemia, and inversely related to inflammatory state. Patients with only low FT3 demonstrated better survival than those with synchronously low FT3 and FT4, while those with synchronously low FT3, FT4 and TSH had the worst clinical outcome. Low T3 syndrome together with CLL-IPI had larger AUCs compared with CLL-IPI alone in TTFT and CSS prediction. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome may be a good candidate for predicting prognosis in future clinical practice of CLL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Apportioning bacterial carbon source utilization in soil usingC isotope analysis of FISH-targeted bacterial populations sorted by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS):C-FISH-FACS.

An unresolved need in microbial ecology is methodology to enable quantitative analysis of in situ microbial substrate carbon use at the population level. Here, we evaluated if a novel combination of radiocarbon- labelled substrate tracing, Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) to sort the FISH-targeted population for quantification of incorporated radioactivity (C-FISH-FACS) can address this need. Our test scenario used FISH probe PSE1284 targeting Pseudomonas spp. (and some Burkholderia spp.) and salicylic acid added to rhizosphere soil. We examined salicylic acid-C fate (mineralized, cell-incorporated, extractable and non-extractable) and mass balance (0-24 h) and show that the PSE1284 population captured ∼50% of the Nycodenz extracted biomassC. Analysis of the taxonomic distribution of the salicylic acid biodegradation trait suggested that PSE1284 population success was not due to conservation of this trait but due to competitiveness for the added carbon. Adding 50KBq ofC sampleenabled detection ofC in the sorted population at ∼60-600 times background; a sensitivity which demonstrates potential extension to analysis of rarer/less active populations. Given its sensitivity and compatibility with obtaining a C mass balance,C-FISH-FACS allows quantitative dissection of C flow within the microbial biomass that has hitherto not been achieved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Effects of applying oil-extracted microalgae on the fermentation quality, feed-nutritive value and aerobic stability of ensiled sweet sorghum.

A laboratory-silo study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation quality, feed-nutritive value and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage with or without oil-extracted microalgae supplementation. Sweet sorghum was mixed with four microalgae levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% on a dry matter basis; Control, M1, M2 and M3, respectively) and ensiled for 45 d. Further, the four experimental silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 7 d.

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Application of adaptive laboratory evolution to overcome a flux limitation in an Escherichia coli production strain.

Gene deletion strategies using flux balance analysis (FBA) have improved the growth-coupled production of various compounds. However, the productivities were often below the expectation because the cells failed to adapt to these genetic perturbations. Here, we demonstrate the productivity of the succinate of the designed gene deletion strain was improved by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). Although FBA predicted deletions of adhE-pykAF-gldA-pflB lead to produce succinate from glycerol with a yield of 0.45 C-mol/C-mol, the knockout mutant did not produce only 0.08 C-mol/Cmol, experimentally. After the ALE experiments, the highest succinate yield of an evolved strain reached to the expected value. Genome sequencing analysis revealed all evolved strains possessed novel mutations in ppc of I829S or R849S. In vitro enzymatic assay and metabolic profiling analysis revealed that these mutations desensitizing an allosteric inhibition by L-aspartate and improved the flux through Ppc, while the activity of Ppc in the unevolved strain was tightly regulated by L-aspartate. These result demonstrated that the evolved strains achieved the improvement of succinate production by expanding the flux space of Ppc, realizing the predicted metabolic state by FBA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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