Search results for: BROMIDE ELECTRODE
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Opening Magnesium Storage Capability of Two-Dimensional MXene by Intercalation of Cationic Surfactant.Two-dimensional (2D) TiCMXene has attracted great attention in electrochemical energy storage devices (supercapacitors and lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries) due to its excellent electrical conductivity as well as high volumetric capacity. Nevertheless, a previous study showed that multivalent Mgions cannot reversibly insert into MXene, resulting in a negligible capacity. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy to achieve high magnesium storage capability for TiCMXene by preintercalating a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Density functional theory simulations verify that intercalated CTAcations reduce the diffusion barrier of Mgon the MXene surface, resulting in the significant improvement of the reversible insertion/deinsertion of Mgions between MXene layers. Consequently, the MXene electrode exhibits a desirable volumetric specific capacity of 300 mAh cmat 50 mA gas well as outstanding rate performance. This work endows MXene material with an application in electrochemical energy storage and, simultaneously, introduces magnesium battery materials as a member.
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Elegant Face-Down Liquid-Space-Restricted Deposition of CsPbBrFilms for Efficient Carbon-Based All-Inorganic Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.It is a great challenge to obtain the uniform films of bromide-rich perovskites such as CsPbBrin the two-step sequential solution process (two-step method), which was mainly due to the decomposition of the precursor films in solution. Herein, we demonstrated a novel and elegant face-down liquid-space-restricted deposition to inhibit the decomposition and fabricate high-quality CsPbBrperovskite films. This method is highly reproducible, and the surface of the films was smooth and uniform with an average grain size of 860 nm. As a consequence, the planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) without the hole-transport layer based on CsPbBrand carbon electrodes exhibit enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) along with high open circuit voltage ( V). The champion device has achieved a PCE of 5.86% with a Vof 1.34 V, which to our knowledge is the highest performing CsPbBrPSC in planar structure. Our results suggest an efficient and low-cost route to fabricate the high-quality planar all-inorganic PSCs.
1345 related Products with: Elegant Face-Down Liquid-Space-Restricted Deposition of CsPbBrFilms for Efficient Carbon-Based All-Inorganic Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.Protein A (Liquid form) Protein A (Liquid form) Protein A (Liquid form) Protein A (Liquid form) MarkerGeneTM Fluorescent Transfection Reagents and Cellufine Formyl , 50 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl , 500 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl Media Fontana-Masson Stain Kit
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Determination of halides using Ag nanoparticles-modified disposable electrodes. A first approach to a wearable sensor for quantification of chloride ions.This work reports a simple voltammetric method for the determination of chloride, bromide, and iodide ions using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with silver nanoparticles electrochemically deposited on the working electrode surface. UV/Vis absorption spectroelectrochemistry was used to study the electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on the working carbon electrode on PET or Gore-Texsupports, and their subsequent oxidation in the presence of halide ions. The main figures of merit of the developed sensors, such as reproducibility and detection limit, have been calculated. Reproducibility values of 2.22%, 2.83% and 3.23% were obtained for chloride, bromide and iodide determinations, respectively. Additionally, the lowest detected amount of chloride, bromide and iodide ions were 3.0·10 M, 5.0·10 M and 5.0·10 M, respectively. Taking into account the relevance of the determination of chloride ion concentration in sweat, the voltammetric method for the determination of halides has been successfully transferred to a Gore-Texsupport to build a first approach to a wearable sensor that facilitates the quantification of this ion in sweat samples. The Gore-Texsensor provides a good reproducibility (RSD = 1.61%).
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Light-Driven Water Splitting Mediated by Photogenerated Bromine.Light-driven water splitting was achieved using a dye-sensitized mesoporous oxide film and the oxidation of bromide (Br) to bromine (Br) or tribromide (Br). The chemical oxidant (Bror Br) is formed during illumination at the photoanode and used as a sacrificial oxidant to drive a water oxidation catalyst (WOC), here demonstrated using [Ru(bda)(pic)], (1; pic=picoline, bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate). The photochemical oxidation of bromide produces a chemical oxidant with a potential of 1.09 V vs. NHE for the Br/Brcouple or 1.05 V vs. NHE for the Br/Brcouple, which is sufficient to drive water oxidation at 1 (Ru≈1.0 V vs. NHE at pH 5.6). At pH 5.6, using a 0.2 m acetate buffer containing 40 mm LiBr and the [Ru(4,4'-POH-bpy)(bpy)](RuP, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) chromophore dye on a SnO/TiOcore-shell electrode resulted in a photocurrent density of around 1.2 mA cmunder approximately 1 Sun illumination and a Faradaic efficiency upon addition of 1 of 77 % for oxygen evolution.
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Conjugated Polymer-Based Photoelectrochemical Cytosensor with Turn-On Enable Signal for Sensitive Cell Detection.In this work, a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) cytosensor was constructed by using cationic polyfluorene derivative, poly(9,9-bis(6'-(N,N,N,-trimethylammonium)hexyl)fluorene-co-alt-1,4-phenylene)bromide (PFP) as the photoelectric-responsive material for sensitive cell detection. Positive-charged PFP with high photoelectric conversion efficiency can generate robust photocurrent under light illumination. In the PEC cytosensor, 3-phosphonopropionic acid was linked to the indium tin oxide electrode, followed by modification with antiepithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule (EpCAM) antibody via amide condensation reaction. Thus, target SKBR-3 cells with overexpressed EpCAM antigen could be captured onto the electrode via the specific antibody-antigen interactions. Upon adding cationic PFP, a favorable electrostatic interaction between cationic PFP and negatively charged cell membrane led to a turn-on detection signal for target SKBR-3 cells. This new cytosensor not only exhibits good sensitivity because of the good photoelectric performance of conjugated polymers, but also offers decent selectivity to target cells by taking advantage of the specific antibody-antigen recognition.
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Tetraphenylphosphonium Bromide as a Cathode Buffer Layer Material for Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.Here, we introduced the role of small organic molecule tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (QPhPBr) as an electron-transporting layer (ETL) material for fabricating high-efficiency bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). Their significantly higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in well-known active layer devices (PTB7-Th:PCBM, PBDTTT-CT:PCBM, and P3HT:PCBM) was observed compared to that of the bare Al cathode. The use of N719 as an ETL was also demonstrated. Observed data reveal that QPhPBr-based devices exhibit high PCEs up to 9.18, 8.42, and 4.81% from PTB7-Th, PBDTTT-CT, and P3HT, respectively. For comparisons, the bare Al devices show PCEs of 5.37, 4.75, and 3.01%, respectively. Moreover, further enhancement of PSC efficiency (9.83, 8.69, and 5.35%) is achieved from mixed binary solution of N719:QPhPBr because of modulated adjustment of the work function of the Al electrode. Our results indicate the excellent function of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide and its binary blend as effective small-molecule organic materials to regulate the metal surface properties and the potential used as excellent cathode buffer layer materials for realizing high-efficiency PSCs.
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Efficient Supercapacitor Energy Storage Using Conjugated Microporous Polymer Networks Synthesized from Buchwald-Hartwig Coupling.Supercapacitors have received increasing interest as energy storage devices due to their rapid charge-discharge rates, high power densities, and high durability. In this work, novel conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) networks are presented for supercapacitor energy storage, namely 3D polyaminoanthraquinone (PAQ) networks synthesized via Buchwald-Hartwig coupling between 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone and aryl bromides. PAQs exhibit surface areas up to 600 mg, good dispersibility in polar solvents, and can be processed to flexible electrodes. The PAQs exhibit a three-electrode specific capacitance of 576 F gin 0.5 m HSOat a current of 1 A gretaining 80-85% capacitances and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiencies (95-98%) upon 6000 cycles at a current density of 2 A g. Asymmetric two-electrode supercapacitors assembled by PAQs show a capacitance of 168 F gof total electrode materials, an energy density of 60 Wh kgat a power density of 1300 W kg, and a wide working potential window (0-1.6 V). The asymmetric supercapacitors show Coulombic efficiencies up to 97% and can retain 95.5% of initial capacitance undergo 2000 cycles. This work thus presents novel promising CMP networks for charge energy storage.
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CTAB-assisted growth of self-supported ZnGeOnanosheet network on a conductive foam as a binder-free electrode for long-life lithium-ion batteries.The Ge-based compounds show great potential as replacements for traditional graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, large volume changes and low conductivity of such materials result in a poor electrochemical cycling and rate performance. Herein, we fabricate a self-supported and three-dimensional (3D) sponge-like structure of interlinked ZnGeOultrathin nanosheets anchored vertically on a nickel foam (ZGO NSs@NF) via a simple hydrothermal process assisted by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Such robust self-supported hybrid structures greatly improve the structural tolerance of the active materials and accommodate the volume variation that occurs during repeated electrochemical cycling. As expected, the self-supported ZGO NSs@NF composites demonstrate an excellent lithium storage with a high discharge capacity, a long cycling life, and a good rate capability when used as binder-free anodes for LIBs. A high reversible discharge capacity of 794 mA h gis maintained after 500 cycles at 200 mA g, corresponding to 81% capacity retention of the second cycle. Further evaluation at a higher current density (2 A g) also delivers a reversible discharge capacity (537 mA h g) for this binder-free anode. This novel 3D structure of the self-supported ultrathin nanosheets on a conductive substrate, with its volume buffer effect and good interfacial contacts, can stimulate the progress of other energy-efficient technologies.
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Molten Salt Assisted Self-Assembly: Synthesis of Mesoporous LiCoOand LiMnOThin Films and Investigation of Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance of Lithium Cobaltate.Mesoporous thin films of transition metal lithiates (TML) belong to an important group of materials for the advancement of electrochemical systems. This study demonstrates a simple one pot method to synthesize the first examples of mesoporous LiCoOand LiMnOthin films. Molten salt assisted self-assembly can be used to establish an easy route to produce mesoporous TML thin films. The salts (LiNOand [Co(HO)](NO)or [Mn(HO)](NO)) and two surfactants (10-lauryl ether and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or cethyltrimethylammonium nitrate (CTAN)) form stable liquid crystalline mesophases. The charged surfactant is needed for the assembly of the necessary amount of salt in the hydrophilic domains of the mesophase, which produces stable metal lithiate pore-walls upon calcination. The films have a large pore size with a high surface area that can be increased up to 82 mg. The method described can be adopted to synthesize other metal oxides and metal lithiates. The mesoporous thin films of LiCoOshow promising performance as water oxidation catalysts under pH 7 and 14 conditions. The electrodes, prepared using CTAN as the cosurfactant, display the lowest overpotentials in the literature among other LiCoOsystems, as low as 376 mV at 10 mA cmand 282 mV at 1 mA cm.
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Confocal Raman Microscopy for the Determination of Protein and Quaternary Ammonium Ion Loadings in Biocatalytic Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage.The need to immobilize active enzyme, while ensuring high rates of substrate turnover and electronic charge transfer with an electrode, is a centrally important challenge in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal Raman microscopy as a tool for quantitation and molecular-scale structural characterization of ionomers and proteins within biocatalytic membranes to aid in the development of energy efficient biofuel cells. A set of recently available short side chain Aquivion ionomers spanning a range of equivalent weight (EW) suitable for enzyme immobilization was investigated. Aquivion ionomers (790 EW, 830 EW and 980 EW) received in the proton-exchanged (SOH) form were treated with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) to neutralize the ionomer and expand the size of ionic domains for enzyme incorporation. Through the use of confocal Raman microscopy, membrane TBAion content was predicted in calibration studies to within a few percent of the conventional titrimetric method across the full range of TBA: SOratios of practical interest (0.1 to 1.7). Protein incorporation into membranes was quantified at the levels expected in biofuel cell electrodes. Furthermore, features associated with the catalytically active, enzyme-coordinated copper center were evident between 400 and 500 cmin spectra of laccase catalytic membranes, demonstrating the potential to interrogate mechanistic chemistry at the enzyme active site of biocathodes under fuel cell reaction conditions. When benchmarked against the 1100 EW Nafion ionomer in glucose/air enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs), EFCs with laccase air-breathing cathodes prepared from TBAmodified Aquivion ionomers were able to reach maximum power densities (P) up to 1.5 times higher than EFCs constructed with cathodes prepared from TBAmodified Nafion. The improved performance of EFCs containing the short side chain Aquivion ionomers relative to Nafion is traced to effects of ionomer ion-exchange capacity (IEC, where IEC = EW), where the greater density of SOmoieties in the Aquivion materials produces an environment more favorable to mass transport and higher TBAconcentrations.
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