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BAPTA-AM dramatically improves maturation and development of bovine oocytes from grade-3 cumulus-oocyte complexes.

Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) is essential for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. Here, we investigated the role of [Ca2+ ]i in oocytes from cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with respect to maturation and early embryonic development, using the calcium-buffering agent BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis[2-aminophenoxy]ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis [acetoxymethyl ester]). COCs were graded based on compactness of the cumulus mass and appearance of the cytoplasm, with Grade 1 indicating higher quality and developmental potential than Grade 3. Results showed that: (i) [Ca2+ ]i in metaphase-II (MII) oocytes from Grade-3 COCs was significantly higher than those from Grade-1 COCs, and was significantly reduced by BAPTA-AM; (ii) nuclear maturation of oocytes from Grade-3 COCs treated with BAPTA-AM was enhanced compared to untreated COCs; (iii) protein abundance of Cyclin B and oocyte-specific Histone 1 (H1FOO) was improved in MII oocytes from Grade-3 COCs treated with BAPTA-AM; (iv) Ca2+ transients were triggered in each group upon fertilization, and the amplitude of [Ca2+ ]i oscillations increased in the Grade-3 group upon treatment with BAPTA-AM, with the magnitude approaching that of the Grade-1 group; and (v) cleavage rates and blastocyst-formation rates were improved in the Grade-3 group treated with BAPTA-AM compared to untreated controls following in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation. Therefore, BAPTA-AM dramatically improved oocyte maturation, oocyte quality, and embryonic development of oocytes from Grade-3 COCs.

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Diosgenin, an Activator of 1,25D3-MARRS Receptor/ERp57, Attenuates the Effects of TNF-α by Causing ADAM10-Dependent Ectodomain Shedding of TNF Receptor 1.

We investigated how diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, has anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) effects in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs).

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Calcimycin mediates mycobacterial killing by inducing intracellular calcium-regulated autophagy in a P2RX7 dependent manner.

Phenotypic screening led to the identification of calcimycin as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (M. bovis BCG) growth in vitro and in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we aim to decipher the mechanism of antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. We noticed that treatment with calcimycin led to up-regulation of different autophagy markers like Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7, Atg 3 and enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II conversion in macrophages. This calcimycin-mediated killing of intracellular M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG was abrogated in the presence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA). We also demonstrate that calcimycin binding with purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7) led to increase in intracellular calcium level that regulates the extracellular release of ATP. ATP was able to regulate calcimycin-induced autophagy through P2RX7 in an autocrine fashion. Blocking of either P2RX7 expression by 1-[N,O-bis(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62) or reducing intracellular calcium levels by 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxy-methyl) ester (BAPTA-AM) abrogated the antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. Taken together, these results showed that calcimycin exerts its antimycobacterial effect by regulating intracellular calcium-dependent ATP release that induces autophagy in a P2RX7 dependent manner.

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Effect of Methoxsalen on Ca²⁺ Homeostasis and Viability in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

Methoxsalen is a natural compound found in many seed plants. The effect of methoxsalen on Ca²⁺- related physiology in human osteosarcoma is unclear. This study investigated the effect of methoxsalen on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Methoxsalen induced [Ca²⁺]i rises concentration-dependently. Methoxsalen-induced Ca²⁺ entry was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. This Ca²⁺ entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, and SKF96365. In Ca²⁺-free medium, incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) inhibited methoxsalen-evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises by 96%. In contrast, incubation with methoxsalen abolished BHQ-evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished methoxsalen-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Methoxsalen was cytotoxic at 300-700 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid/acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxsalen-induced cytotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that in MG63 cells, methoxsalen induced [Ca²⁺]i rises by evoking PLC-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, and Ca²⁺ entry via store-operated Ca²⁺ entry. Methoxsalen also induced Ca²⁺- disassociated cell death.

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Effect of Protriptyline on [Ca²⁺]i and Viability in MDCK Renal Tubular Cells.

Protriptyline has been used as an antidepressant. Clinically it has been prescribed in the auxiliary treatment of cancer patients. However, its effect on Ca²⁺ signaling and related physiology is unknown in renal cells. This study examined the effect of protriptyline on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and viability in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tubular cells. Protriptyline induced [Ca²⁺]i rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by 20% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Protriptyline-induced Ca²⁺ entry was not altered by protein kinase C (PKC) activity but was inhibited by 20% by three modulators of store-operated Ca²⁺ channels: nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365. In Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor 2,5- di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) or thapsigargin partially inhibited protriptyline-evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises. Conversely, treatment with protriptyline inhibited partially BHQ or thapsigargin-evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 did not change protriptyline-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Protriptyline at 5-200 μM decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by pretreatment with the Ca²⁺ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/ AM). Together, in MDCK cells, protriptyline induced [Ca²⁺]i rises by evoking PLC-independent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and other unknown stores, and Ca²⁺ entry via PKCinsensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ entry. Protriptyline also caused Ca²⁺-independent cell death.

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Cadmium induces Ca2+ mediated, calpain-1/caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in primary cultured rat proximal tubular cells.

Calcium, as a ubiquitous second messenger, governs a large array of cellular processes and is necessary for cell survival. More recently, it was observed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) elevation could induce apoptosis in primary cultured rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exposed to cadmium (Cd), but the concrete mechanism is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the signal pathway involved in [Ca2+]c elevation-mediated apoptosis. The results confirmed the elevation of [Ca2+]c by confocal microscopy and enhancement of the apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer when rPT cells were exposed to Cd for 12h. Then we demonstrated that Cd enhanced the protein levels of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 in rPT cells. Pretreatment with a cytosolic Ca2+ chelator, 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), markedly blocked the up-regulation of active calpain-1 and caspase-3 and inhibited the apoptosis induced by Cd. Further, rPT cells were pretreated with a cell-permeable selective calpain-1 inhibitor, 3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-mercapto-(Z)-2-propenoic acid (PD150606) and caspase-3 inhibitor, N-Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO), respectively. PD150606 significantly attenuated the up-regulation of active caspase-3 and the apoptosis induced by Cd. As expected, inhibition of active caspase-3 by Ac-DEVD-CHO decreased the apoptosis induced by Cd. Taken together, it could be concluded that [Ca2+]c elevation did act as a pro-apoptotic signal in Cd-induced cytotoxicity of rPT cells, triggered calpain-1 and caspase-3 activation in turn, and induced apoptosis of rPT cells.

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Effects of puerarin on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability of MDCK renal tubular cells.

Puerarin is a natural compound and has been used as herb medication in a number of countries, especially in Asia. The effect of puerarin on Ca2+ signaling is unknown in renal cells. This study examined whether puerarin affected Ca2+ physiology in MDCK renal tubular cells. Cytosolic free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) were measured using the fluorescent dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by using WST-1 assay. Puerarin induced [Ca2+]i rises and the response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+. Puerarin-induced Ca2+ entry was not altered by protein kinase C (PKC) activity, but was inhibited by nifedipine. In Ca2+-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) or thapsigargin partly inhibited puerarin-evoked [Ca2+]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 did not change puerarin-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Puerarin at 25-50μM caused cytotoxicity, which was not reversed by pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). Collectively, in MDCK cells, puerarin induced [Ca2+]i rises by evoking PLC-independent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and other unknown stores, and Ca2+ entry via nifedipine-sensitive, PKC-insensitive Ca2+ entry pathways. Puerarin also caused Ca2+-independent cell death.

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BAPTA-AM decreases cellular pH, inhibits acidocalcisome acidification and autophagy in amino acid-starved T. brucei.

To investigate the role of Ca2+ signaling in starvation-induced autophagy in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, we used cell-permeant Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and cell impermeant chelator EGTA, and examined the potential involvement of several intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathways in T. brucei autophagy. The results showed an unexpected effect of BAPTA-AM in decreasing cellular pH and inhibiting acidocalcisome acidification in starved cells. The implication of these results in the role of Ca2+ signaling and cellular/organellar pH in T. brucei autophagy is discussed.

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Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through upregulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release, and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ . The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this upregulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca2+ uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2809-2818, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Chelerythrine promotes Ca2+-dependent calpain activation in neuronal cells in a PKC-independent manner.

Chelerythrine is widely used as a broad range protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, but there is controversy about its inhibitory effect. Moreover, it has been shown to exert PKC-independent effects on non-neuronal cells.

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