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#28601765   2017/06/11 Save this To Up

Application of volumetric absorptive microsampling device for quantification of tacrolimus in human blood as a model drug of high blood cell partition.

Volumetric absorptive microsampling device (VAMS) was evaluated for bioanalysis of tacrolimus, which was used as a model drug with high blood cell partition. Aliquots of blood (ca. 10μL) with different hematocrits and fortified with tacrolimus were wicked up by VAMS and tacrolimus was extracted with a methanol-water mixture (1:1, v/v) via sonication. After chromatography on an AQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (100×2.1 i.d., mm, 1.8μm), tacrolimus and the internal standard ascomycin, were detected in the positive ion mode with electrospray ionization by monitoring of transitions m/z 826.6→616.4 and m/z 814.6→604.0, respectively. An assay method to quantify tacrolimus from 1 to 250ng/mL in whole blood was qualified by ensuring that linearity, selectivity, intra- and inter-batch reproducibility, and stability were within the acceptance criteria. Consistent and high extraction recovery of tacrolimus was ensured from blood with low- (20%), mid- (45%), and high-hematocrit (65%) levels with minimal matrix effects. Apparent instability at ambient temperature or 4°C possibly due to reduced recovery suggests that tacrolimus in VAMS should be stored at -25°C until assay. Potential reduced recovery over time from VAMS should be taken into consideration in method optimization.

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#28349163   2017/03/28 Save this To Up

Engineering of the LysR family transcriptional regulator FkbR1 and its target gene to improve ascomycin production.

Ascomycin (FK520), a macrocyclic polyketide natural antibiotic, displays high anti-fungal and immunosuppressive activity. In this study, the LysR family transcriptional regulator FkbR1 was characterized, and its role in ascomycin biosynthesis was explored by gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression. Inactivation of fkbR1 led to 67.5% reduction of ascomycin production, which was restored by complementation of fkbR1. Overexpression of fkbR1 resulted in a 33.5% increase in ascomycin production compared with the parent strain FS35. These findings indicated that FkbR1 was a positive regulator for ascomycin production. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of fkbE, fkbF, fkbS, and fkbU were downregulated in the fkbR1 deletion strain and upregulated in the fkbR1 overexpression strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vitro and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR assays in vivo indicated that FkbR1 bound to the intergenic region of fkbR1-fkbE. To investigate the roles of the target genes fkbE and fkbF in ascomycin production, the deletion and overexpressions of fkbE and fkbF were implemented, respectively. Overexpression of fkbE resulted in a 45.6% increase in ascomycin production, but little change was observed in fkbF overexpression strain. To further enhance ascomycin production, the fkbR1 and fkbE combinatorial overexpression strain OfkbRE was constructed with the ascomycin yield increased by 69.9% to 536.7 mg/L compared with that of the parent strain. Our research provided a helpful strategy to increase ascomycin production via engineering FkbR1 and its target gene.

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#28098395   2017/01/18 Save this To Up

First UHPLC-MS/MS method coupled with automated online SPE for quantification both of tacrolimus and everolimus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its application on samples from co-treated pediatric patients.

Tacrolimus (TAC, FK-506) and everolimus (EVE, RAD001) are immunosuppressors used to treat pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation. Their hematic TDM by liquid chromatography became standard practice. However, it does not always reflect concentrations at their active site. Our aim was to develop and validate a new method for the simultaneous TAC and EVE quantification into target cells: peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected using cell preparation tubes; cells number and mean cell volume were evaluated by an automatic cell counter. TAC and EVE were quantified using UHPLC-MS/MS coupled with an automated online solid-phase extraction platform. Chromatographic run was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 1.7 μm (2.1 × 50 mm) column at 45 °C, for 6 min at 0.5 ml/min. Mobile phases were water and methanol, both with 2 mm ammonium acetate and 1 ml/l formic acid). XBridge® C8 10 μm (1 × 10 mm) SPE cartridges were used, and the internal standard was ascomycin. Following Food and Drug Administration guidelines, method validation resulted in high sensitivity and specificity. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)  = 0.998) and intra-day and inter-day imprecision and inaccuracy were <15%. A reproducible matrix effect was observed, with a good recovery for all compounds. Drug amounts in 15 'real' PBMCs samples from five pediatric patients in co-treatment resulted within the calibration range (0.039-5 ng). Concentrations from each patient were standardized using their evaluated mean cell volume: intra-PBMCs concentration was meanly 19.23 and 218.61 times higher than the hematic one for TAC and EVE, respectively. This method might be useful in clinical routine, giving reliable data on drugs concentration at the active site. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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#28063333   2017/01/07 Save this To Up

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous determination of tacrolimus and 13-O-desmethyl tacrolimus in rat kidney tissue.

A sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated to determine the concentrations of tacrolimus and its major metabolite 13-O-desmethyl tacrolimus (13-ODMT) in kidney tissue from rats who received tacrolimus intra-peritoneally at doses of 0.5mg/kg and 2mg/kg. The samples were prepared by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure using ethyl ether as the extraction solvent and ascomycin as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved using Phenomenex Kinetex column (2.6μm C18 100Å, 100×2.1mm, Phenomenex, Torrance CA) and a gradient mobile phase of water and methanol-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) both containing 0.1% formic acid. The limit of quantification was 0.25ng/ml and the calibration curves covered a concentration range from 0.25 to 50ng/ml. Intra-and inter-assay precision and accuracy for both tacrolimus and 13-ODMT were all within FDA guidelines for bioanalysis. Extraction efficiency for tacrolimus ranged from 67.00 to 74.90% and from 66.70 to 78.40% for 13-ODMT. Several challenges interfering with the performance of the method such as phospholipid build-up have also been addressed. Kidney tissue samples from six rats receiving either 0.5 or 2mg/kg dose were analyzed and resulted in a median concentration of 11.54 and 0.72ng/ml for tacrolimus and 13-ODMT, respectively, for the lower dose level, and a median concentration of 8.89ng/ml and 1.50ng/ml for tacrolimus and 13-ODMT, respectively, at the higher dose level.

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#27869289   2016/11/21 Save this To Up

Integration of parallel (13) C-labeling experiments and in silico pathway analysis for enhanced production of ascomycin.

Herein, the hyper-producing strain for ascomycin was engineered based on (13) C-labeling experiments and elementary flux modes analysis (EFMA). First, the metabolism of non-model organism Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus SA68 was investigated and an updated network model was reconstructed using (13) C- metabolic flux analysis. Based on the precise model, EFMA was further employed to predict genetic targets for higher ascomycin production. Chorismatase (FkbO) and pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) were predicted as the promising overexpression and deletion targets, respectively. The corresponding mutant TD-FkbO and TD-ΔPyc exhibited the consistency effects between model prediction and experimental results. Finally, the combined genetic manipulations were performed, achieving a high-yield ascomycin engineering strain TD-ΔPyc-FkbO with production up to 610 mg/L, 84.8% improvement compared with the parent strain SA68. These results manifested that the integration of (13) C-labeling experiments and in silico pathway analysis could serve as a promising concept to enhance ascomycin production, as well as other valuable products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1036-1044. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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#27837999   2016/11/13 Save this To Up

A high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of tacrolimus in human bile in liver transplant recipients.

Tacrolimus whole-blood concentrations imperfectly reflect concentrations at the effect site. Tacrolimus concentrations in the transplanted organ could be more relevant to predict rejection events. Because liver biopsy cannot be repeatedly performed after liver transplantation, we suggested measuring tacrolimus in the bile to have a cost-effective and clinically implementable surrogate marker of intra-hepatic tacrolimus concentration. We developed and fully validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tacrolimus in human bile. Sample purification was achieved using protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl-acetate. Gradient elution was performed using a C18 analytical column with a 5min run-time. The method was linear from 0.5ng/mL to 20ng/mL. In this concentration range, within-day and between-day precisions as well as overall bias were within ±15%. Matrix effect was fully corrected by the internal standard (ascomycin). The assay was optimized to achieve good selectivity in this complex biological matrix. Tacrolimus was found to be stable in bile stored 6 months at -80°C, after 3 freeze and thaw cycles, 20h at room temperature and 24h in extracts kept at 15°C in the auto-sampler. The method was applied to quantify tacrolimus in bile from liver transplant recipients. It allowed getting preliminary data about tacrolimus excretion profile in bile and showed the lack of correlation between tacrolimus whole blood concentration and tacrolimus liver exposition. This alternative and innovative analytical approach of tacrolimus bio-analysis appears suitable for further studies evaluating relevance of biliary tacrolimus concentration as a new pharmacological marker of immunosuppressive activity.

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#27397514   2016/08/01 Save this To Up

The Dynamic Role of the IL-33/ST2 Axis in Chronic Viral-infections: Alarming and Adjuvanting the Immune Response.

Interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family, is constitutively expressed in epithelial and in endothelial cells at barrier sites, acting as a danger signal and adjuvanting the immune response following tissue damage and infection. Originally implicated in allergy, IL-33 is also known to be involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by enhancing natural killer, Th1, and CD4 and CD8 T-cell functions. The nature of the antiviral immune response orchestrated by IL-33 depends on the site of infection, the duration of the disease and the cytokine milieu. In this review, we focus on the distinctive contribution of IL-33 as an anti-infective and proinflammatory cytokine in response to cell death and viral infections. The dynamic role of IL-33 in the acute and chronic phases of infection with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and with CMV is highlighted. This review will also discuss the potential immunotherapeutic and adjuvant roles of IL-33.

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#26589688   2016/01/15 Save this To Up

A rapid and sensitive method to determine tacrolimus in rat whole blood using liquid-liquid extraction with mild temperature ultrasonication and LC-MS/MS.

Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation, but its extremely low aqueous solubility causes poor intestinal absorption. There have been efforts to develop an alternative TAC formulation with an improved dissolution rate and oral bioavailability (BA), and the development of a rapid and sensitive analytical method for its in vivo pharmacokinetic study is an essential prerequisite. Thus, here, we develop a novel method to determine TAC in rat whole blood based on liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with mild temperature ultrasonication. For rapid and efficient separation of TAC from other hydrophobic compounds, a C8 column was chosen with isocratic mobile phase elution. With the help of the high specificity and the high sensitivity of multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode, the present method showed good performance including specificity, linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.996 within 1-200 ng/mL), sensitivity (the lower limit of quantitation at 1 ng/mL), intra- and inter-day accuracy (88.7-104.5 %) and precision (≤10.3 %), and recovery (94.7-102.6 %). Also, the stability of TAC and ascomycin, the internal standard, in rat whole blood was confirmed before and after the sample preparation. The validated method was satisfactorily applied to a pharmacokinetic study to determine TAC in rat whole blood following oral administration of the marketed product (Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma). In the present study, LLE with mild temperature ultrasonication was successfully expanded to the determination of a drug from whole blood or plasma for the first time. Therefore, the present method can contribute to the rapid in vivo evaluation of novel TAC formulations, and will be able to contribute to the development of TAC formulations with a higher dissolution rate and a higher BA.

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#26562153   2015/11/13 Save this To Up

Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

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#26351941   2016/02/10 Save this To Up

Comparing the effect of isotopically labeled or structural analog internal standards on the performance of a LC-MS/MS method to determine ciclosporin A, everolimus, sirolimus and tacrolimus in whole blood.

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is routinely used for analysis of immunosuppressive drugs. This study investigated whether replacing analog internal standards (ANISs) with isotopically labeled internal standards (ILISs) has an impact on the performance of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tacrolimus (TAC), sirolimus (SIR), ciclosporin A (CsA) and everolimus (EVE) in whole blood.

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