Search results for: Anti_Transmissible Gastroenteritis Mono
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High Frequency of Enteric Protozoan, Viral, and Bacterial Potential Pathogens in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrheal Episodes: Evidence Based on Results of Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay.Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9.8% mixed). Rotavirus (19.6%), Giardia duodenalis (16.5%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (8.5%) were the mostly detected pathogens. Adenovirus 40/41 (4.2%), Salmonella (3%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (3%), and Entamoeba histolytica (2.4%) were also detected. Norovirus GI/II, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B were not detected in any patients. All pathogens were involved in coinfections except E. histolytica. Giardia (5.5%) and rotavirus (3%) were the most commonly detected in co-infections. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), Campylobacter spp. (2.4%), E. coli 0157 (1.8%), and Shigella spp. (1.2%) were detected in patients only as co-infections. Infections were more in children 0-4 years, less in adults <40 years, and least >40 years, with statistically significant differences in risk across age groups observed with rotavirus (P<0.001), Giardia (P=0.006), and Cryptosporidium (P=0.036) infections. Lastly, infections were not significantly more in the spring. This report demonstrates the high burden of various enteropathogens in the setting. Further studies are needed to define the impact of these findings on the clinical course of the disease.
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Docosahexaenoyl serotonin emerges as most potent inhibitor of IL-17 and CCL-20 released by blood mononuclear cells from a series of N-acyl serotonins identified in human intestinal tissue.Fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, mono-amine neurotransmitters or amino acids are a class of molecules that display diverse functional roles in different cells and tissues. Recently we reported that one of the serotonin-fatty acid conjugates, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), previously found in gut tissue of mouse and pig, attenuates the IL-23-IL-17 signaling axis in LPS-stimulated mice macrophages. However, its presence and effects in humans remained to be elucidated. Here, we report for the first time its identification in human intestinal (colon) tissue, along with a series of related N-acyl serotonins. Furthermore, we tested these fatty acid conjugates for their ability to inhibit the release of IL-17 and CCL-20 by stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Serotonin conjugates with palmitic acid (PA-5-HT), stearic acid (SA-5-HT) and oleic acid (OA-5-HT) were detected in higher levels than arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5-HT) and DHA-5-HT, while eicosapentaenoyl serotonin (EPA-5-HT) could not be quantified. Among these, DHA-5-HT was the most potent in inhibiting IL-17 and CCL-20, typical Th17 pro-inflammatory mediators, by Concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated human PBMCs. These results underline the idea that DHA-5-HT is a gut-specific endogenously produced mediator with the capacity to modulate the IL-17/Th17 signaling response. Our findings may be of relevance in relation to intestinal inflammatory diseases like Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis.
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[Investigating the efficacy of nutrition therapy for outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease].Inflammatory bowel diseases can cause malnutrition (due to inflammatory cytokine production, catabolic states after surgery, restricted diet), which is difficult to treat by nutritional therapy.
1116 related Products with: [Investigating the efficacy of nutrition therapy for outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease].Cellufine Formyl , 50 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl , 500 ml Cellufine Formyl Media Cellufine Formyl Media Formalin Solution (20%) Formalin Solution (20%) Formalin Solution (20%) Formalin (10% Neutral Bu Formalin (10% Neutral Bu Zinc Formalin Solution Zinc Formalin Solution
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Prevalence and clinical profile of human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Chengdu, West China, 2012-2013.Viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of mortality in childhood and leads to hospitalization in developing countries. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly described virus associated with gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the clinical and epidemiological profile of human bocavirus (HBoV) in pediatric population in Chengdu, China. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 346 fecal samples from children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of HBoV as well as other gastroenteritis viruses. Additionally, laboratory test results, clinical features and epidemiological characters were also collected to assess the correlation between HBoV and acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in Chengdu, China. Of the 346 tested fecal samples, 60 (17.34%) were positive for HBoV. The rate of co-detection of HBoV with other gastroenteritis viruses was 43.33% (26/60). HBoV was most detected in the summer/early fall months. Sequence analysis of the VP1/VP2 gene showed that both HBoV1 and HBoV2 circulated in Chengdu, China. No obvious difference was found between the clinical features of the HBoV1 mono-detected patients and HBoV2 mono-detected patients. Besides, in diarrheic children, positive correlation was found between detection of HBoV and diagnose of respiratory disease. Furthermore, blood cells were detected more frequently in fecal samples of patients with HBoV mono-detected. Though HBoV was detected frequently in Children with diarrhea in Chengdu, no statistical association was found between HBoV and disease severity.
2591 related Products with: Prevalence and clinical profile of human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Chengdu, West China, 2012-2013.Human normal bone and ost Multiple organ tumor tiss Frozen multiple human org Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon CELLKINES Natural Human I Human Interleukin-4 IL-4 Human Interleukin-6 IL-6 Human Interleukin-7 IL-7 Human Interleukin-2 IL-2 Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma
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Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis.Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product.
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Fatal community-acquired ribotype 002 Clostridium difficile bacteremia.Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate. The patient received treatment by intra-venous amoxicillin-clavulanate and oral vancomycin but eventually died on the seventh day of admission with concomitant pneumonia and pulmonary embolism.
BACTERIOLOGY CLOSTRIDIUM CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE NAP Mouse Anti-Clostridium di Mouse Anti-Clostridium di Mouse Anti-Clostridium di NATtrol CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFI Clostridium botulinum D T Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi
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Characterization of a triple-recombinant, reassortant rotavirus strain from the Dominican Republic.We report the genome of a novel human triple-recombinant G4P[6-8_R] mono-reassortant strain identified in a stool sample from the Dominican Republic during routine facility-based rotavirus strain surveillance. The strain was designated as RVA/Human-wt/DOM/2013840364/2013/G4P[6-8_R], with a genomic constellation of G4-P[6-8_R]-I1-R1-C1-M1-(A1-A8_R)-N1-(T1-T7_R)-E1-H1. Recombinant gene segments NSP1 and NSP3 were generated as a result of recombination between genogroup 1 rotavirus A1 human strain and a genotype A8 porcine strain and between genogroup 1 rotavirus T1 human strain and a genotype T7 bovine strain, respectively. Analyses of the RNA secondary structures of gene segment VP4, NSP1 and NSP3 showed that all the recombinant regions appear to start in a loop (single-stranded) region and terminate in a stem (double-stranded) structure. Also, the VP7 gene occupied lineage VII within the G4 genotypes consisting of mostly porcine or porcine-like G4 strains, suggesting the occurrence of reassortment. The remaining gene segments clustered phylogenetically with genogroup 1 strains. This exchange of whole or partial genetic materials between rotaviruses by recombination and reassortment contributes directly to their diversification, adaptation and evolution.
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Apple peel polyphenols: a key player in the prevention and treatment of experimental inflammatory bowel disease.Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation via several mechanisms. These beneficial effects may be due to their high polyphenol content. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic aspects of polyphenols in dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on intestinal inflammation while elucidating the underlying mechanisms and clinical benefits. Induction of intestinal inflammation in mice was performed by oral administration of the inflammatory agent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) at 2.5% for 10 days. Physiological and supraphysiological doses of DAPP (200 and 400 mg/kg/day respectively) were administered by gavage for 10 days pre- and post-DSS treatment. DSS-mediated inflammation caused weight loss, shortening of the colon, dystrophic detachment of the epithelium, and infiltration of mono- and poly-morphonuclear cells in the colon. DSS induced an increase in lipid peroxidation, a down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, an augmented expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an elevated production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and a shift in mucosa-associated microbial composition. However, DAPP normalized most of these abnormalities in preventive or therapeutic situations in addition to lowering inflammatory cytokines while stimulating antioxidant transcription factors and modulating other potential healing pathways. The supraphysiological dose of DAPP in therapeutic situations also improved mitochondrial dysfunction. Relative abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was slightly decreased in DAPP-treated mice. In conclusion, DAPP exhibits powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action in the intestine and is associated with the regulation of cellular signalling pathways and changes in microbiota composition. Evaluation of preventive and therapeutic effects of DAPP may be clinically feasible in individuals with intestinal inflammatory bowel diseases.
2222 related Products with: Apple peel polyphenols: a key player in the prevention and treatment of experimental inflammatory bowel disease.Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Mouse Macrophage Inflamma Mouse Macrophage Inflamma Beta Amyloid (42) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 40) ELISA Beta Amyloid (40) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 40) ELISA Rat Macrophage Inflammato Anti 3 DG imidazolone Mon rHIV gp36, insoluble Anti rHIV gp36, soluble Antige
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Molecular epidemiology and clinical severity of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) 1-4 in children with acute gastroenteritis from Pune, Western India.Although acute gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide, ∼40% of the cases remain undiagnosed for any etiological agent. Human Bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected frequently in feces of diarrhoeic children suggesting its possible etiological involvement in the disease. HBoV has not been reported in association with acute gastroenteritis from India. Fecal samples (n = 418) collected from children (age ≤5 years) hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, between January 2009 and December 2011, from three local hospitals were examined for presence of HBoV using PCR targeting the partial VP1/VP2 capsid region (∼575 bp) followed by phylogenetic analysis. HBoV was detected in 24/418 (5.7%) cases. Co-infection was observed in 5/24 (21%) cases. HBoV infections occurred in children ≤12 months of age. Peak HBoV activity was observed in monsoon and post monsoon season. All four HBoV genotypes were detected in the study region. Major clinical symptoms of HBoV mono infections included diarrhoea (100%), fever (90%), dehydration (74%), and vomiting (58%). Dehydration was observed in all of the HBoV2-4 cases and in 50% of the HBoV1 cases. Clinical severity varied with genotype (HBoV2 > HBoV1 > HBoV3 > HBoV4). HBoV2 cases recorded severe and very severe infections. The study illustrates prevalence and vast genetic diversity of HBoVs in acute gastroenteritis. It highlights the clinical features of HBoV1-4 infections and sheds light on clinical impact of HBoV genotypes in gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:17-23, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Chemical, physical and morphological properties of bacterial biofilms affect survival of encased Campylobacter jejuni F38011 under aerobic stress.Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic pathogen and leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The presence of C. jejuni encased in biofilms found in meat and poultry processing facilities may be the major strategy for its survival and dissemination in aerobic environment. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with C. jejuni F38011 as a culture to form dual-species biofilms. After 4days' exposure to aerobic stress, no viable C. jejuni cells could be detected from mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. In contrast, at least 4.7logCFU/cmof viable C. jejuni cells existed in some dual-species biofilms. To elucidate the mechanism of protection mode, chemical, physical and morphological features of biofilms were characterized. Dual-species biofilms contained a higher level of extracellular polymeric substances with a more diversified chemical composition, especially for polysaccharides and proteins, than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. Structure of dual-species biofilms was more compact and their surface was >8 times smoother than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, as indicated by atomic force microscopy. Under desiccation stress, water content of dual-species biofilms decreased slowly and remained at higher levels for a longer time than mono-species C. jejuni biofilm. The surface of all biofilms was hydrophilic, but total surface energy of dual-species biofilms (ranging from 52.5 to 56.2mJ/m) was lower than that of mono-species C. jejuni biofilm, leading to more resistance to wetting by polar liquids. This knowledge can aid in developing intervention strategies to decrease the survival and dispersal of C. jejuni into foods or environment.
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