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Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two ω-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression.

Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D) is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica) and perilla (Perilla frutescens) contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous) genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A) tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5'UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5'UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops.

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DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 5α-Androstan-3β-ol � ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β- ∆1-Androstene-3β,17β- Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene

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Poly-ε-Caprolactone Microsphere Polymers Containing Usnic Acid: Acute Toxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

Usnic acid (UA) has been studied by its pharmacological properties; however, it presents moderate toxicity, low solubility, and absorption by biological membranes. The aim of this study was to develop poly-ε-caprolactone microsphere polymers containing UA (UA-micro) and evaluate their acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity. The microspheres were prepared by multiple emulsion technique (water/oil/water) and characterized by the encapsulation efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. The acute toxicity of UA and UA-micro (25-50 mg/kg; p.o.) was evaluated in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of UA and UA-micro was evaluated by subcutaneous air pouch and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat, with measurement of inflammatory cytokines and MPO levels. The UA presented encapsulation efficiency of 97.72%, particle size of 13.54 micrometers, polydispersity index of 2.36, and zeta potential of 44.5 ± 2.95 mV. The UA-micro presented lower acute toxicity (LD50 value up to 2000 mg/kg; p.o.) when compared to UA. UA-micro and UA (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw volume and decreased MPO levels, whereas only UA-micro (50 mg/kg) reduced significantly IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO levels in inflammatory exudate. These results suggest that controlled release systems, as microspheres, can be a promising alternative to reduce the toxicity of UA, making it a viable compound for inflammation therapy.

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Fast and effective mitochondrial delivery of ω-Rhodamine-B-polysulfobetaine-PEG copolymers.

Mitochondrial targeting and entry, two crucial steps in fighting severe diseases resulting from mitochondria dysfunction, pose important challenges in current nanomedicine. Cell-penetrating peptides or targeting groups, such as Rhodamine-B (Rho), are known to localize in mitochondria, but little is known on how to enhance their effectiveness through structural properties of polymeric carriers. To address this issue, we prepared 8 copolymers of 3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium propane sulfonate and poly(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate, p(DMAPS-ran-PEGMA) (molecular weight, 18.0 < M n  < 74.0 kg/mol) with two different endgroups. We labeled them with Rho groups attached along the chain or on one of the two endgroups (α or ω). From studies by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy of the copolymers internalization in HeLa cells in the absence and presence of pharmacological inhibitors, we established that the polymers cross the cell membrane foremost by translocation and also by endocytosis, primarily clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The most effective mitochondrial entry was achieved by copolymers of M n  < 30.0 kg/mol, lightly grafted with PEG chains (< 5 mol %) labeled with Rho in the ω-position. Our findings may be generalized to the uptake and mitochondrial targeting of prodrugs and imaging agents with a similar polymeric scaffold.

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Activation of human CD141+ and CD1c+ dendritic cells in vivo with combined TLR 3 and TLR 7/8 ligation.

Mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells are valuable models to study aspects of the human immune system in vivo. We describe a humanized mouse model (hu mice) in which fully functional human CD141+ and CD1c+ myeloid and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) develop from human cord blood CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice. CD141+ DC are the human equivalents of murine CD8+ /CD103+ DC which are essential for the induction of tumor-inhibitory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, making them attractive targets to exploit for the development of new cancer immunotherapies. We used CD34+ -engrafted NSG-A2 mice to investigate activation of DC subsets by synthetic dsRNA or ssRNA analogues polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid/poly I:C and Resiquimod/R848, agonists for TLR3 and TLR8 respectively, both of which are expressed by CD141+ DC. Injection of hu mice with these agonists resulted in upregulation of costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 by CD141+ and CD1c+ DC alike, and their combination further enhanced expression of these molecules by both subsets. When combined, poly I:C and R848 enhanced serum levels of key cytokines associated with cross-presentation and the induction of CTL responses including IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-12 and CXCL10. These data advocate a combination of poly I:C and R848 TLR agonists as means of activating human DC for immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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WT1 peptide vaccine in Montanide in contrast to poly ICLC, is able to induce WT1-specific immune response with TCR clonal enrichment in myeloid leukemia.

The optimal strategy for vaccination to induce CD8+ T cell responses against WT1 is not known.

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Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans.

(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group). Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035) and choice reaction time (p = 0.043) tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses.

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Effect of structural factors on release profiles of Camptothecin from block copolymer conjugates with high load of drug.

The aim of the present work was the synthesis and study the kinetics and profiles of camptothecin (CPT) release form block co- and ter-polymer conjugates comprising polylactide (PLA) segments and CPT moieties, structurally diverse by degrees of branching, content of D-PLA units and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Six PLA, non-toxic macroinitiators (MIs), terminated with α-bromoester were synthesized. MIs were subjected to polymerization of CPT methacrylic derivative (CPTMA) with PEGMA at various ratios. The average contents of CPT from elemental analysis, NMR and UV-GPC were approximate to each other. The number of CPT molecules and PEGMA units was in the range of 9-195 and 0-280 per conjugate, respectively. PEGMA units plasticized PLA causing increase of its crystallinity, whereas 7% and more of D-PLA caused material amorphous. PEGMA units decreased thermal stability of conjugates, however it compatibillized the separated phases of PLA and PCPTMA, based on AFM. In vitro release rate of CPT from linear PLA conjugates deposited on injection-molded PLA bars increased by introduction of PEGMA units with zero-order kinetics and Korsmeyer-Peppas model indicating the super case II transport. Branched conjugates revealed some burst release and then the release was rather of first-order-kinetics with respect to CPT with non-Fickian transport.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 TMA block of high density TMA BLOCK of high density TMA Block of high density MarkerGene™ Multiple Dr High density (69 cases 20 High density (69 cases 20 Red Load Taq Master high Red Load Taq Master high High density (208 core) p ELISA Neptune Blocking B Bcl-2 Oncoprotein; Clone

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Graphene oxide regulates cox2 in human embryonic kidney 293T cells via epigenetic mechanisms: dynamic chromosomal interactions.

To extend the applications of engineered nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide (GO), it is necessary to minimize cytotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying this cytotoxicity are unclear. Dynamic chromosomal interactions have been used to illustrate the molecular bases of gene expression, which offers a more sensitive and cutting-edge technology to elucidate complex biological processes associated with epigenetic regulations. In this study, the role of GO-triggered chromatin interactions in the activation of cox2, a hallmark of inflammation, was investigated in normal human cells. Using chromosome conformation capture technology, we showed that GO triggers physical interactions between the downstream enhancer and the cox2 promoter in human embryonic kidney 293T (293T) via p65 and p300 complex-mediated dynamic chromatin looping, which was required for high cox2 expression. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), located upstream of the p65 signaling pathway, contributed to the regulation of cox2 activation through dynamic chromatin architecture. Compared with pristine GO and aminated GO (GO-NH2), poly (acrylic acid)-functionalized GO (GO-PAA) induced a weaker inflammatory response and a weaker effect on chromatin architecture. Our results mechanistically link GO-mediated chromatin interactions with the regulation of cox2 and suggest that GO derivatives may minimize toxicity in practical applications.

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Microfluidic co-culture of pancreatic tumor spheroids with stellate cells as a novel 3D model for investigation of stroma-mediated cell motility and drug resistance.

Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major component of the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer, play roles in cancer progression as well as drug resistance. Culturing various cells in microfluidic (microchannel) devices has proven to be a useful in studying cellular interactions and drug sensitivity. Here we present a microchannel plate-based co-culture model that integrates tumor spheroids with PSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix to mimic the tumor microenvironment in vivo by recapitulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance.

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Acylated and unacylated ghrelin inhibit apoptosis in myoblasts cocultured with colon carcinoma cells.

Cancer cachexia is a life‑threatening syndrome associated with myofiber damage. Tumor factors impair muscle regeneration by promoting myoblast apoptosis. Ghrelin is a multifunctional hormone with an anti‑apoptotic effect, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated whether the coculturing of C2C12 myoblasts with CT26 colon carcinoma cells may induce myoblast apoptosis, and whether acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) may exert anti‑apoptotic effects. We found that the coculture induced myoblast apoptosis and increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α concentrations in the culture medium. Moreover, the coculture increased c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) activity, suppressed Akt activity, increased the mitochondrial Bax/Bcl‑2 ratio, impaired mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), increased the cytosolic cytochrome c levels, and activated the caspase‑3/poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) cascade in myoblasts. We also found that either AG or UnAG inhibited these changes. The present study describes a novel in vitro model that can be employed to investigate cancer‑induced myoblast apoptosis, and our findings suggest a possible use for AG and UnAG in treating cancer cachexia.

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