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Liver xeno-repopulation with human hepatocytes in Fah-/-Rag2-/- mice after pharmacological immunosuppression.

Functional human hepatocytes xeno-engrafted in mouse liver can be used as a model system to study hepatitis virus infection and vaccine efficacy. Significant liver xeno-repopulation has been reported in two kinds of genetically modified mice that have both immune deficiency and liver injury-induced donor hepatocyte selection: the uPA/SCID mice and Fah(-/-) Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice. The lack of hardy breeding and the overly elaborated technique in these two models may hinder the potential future application of these models to hepatitis virus infection and vaccination studies. Improving the transplantation protocol for liver xeno-repopulation from human hepatocytes will increase the model efficiency and application. In this study, we successfully apply immunosuppressive drug treatments of anti-asialo GM1 and FK506 in Fah(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice, resulting in significant liver xeno-repopulation from human hepatocytes and human fetal liver cells. This methodology decreases the risk of animal mortality during breeding and surgery. When infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) sera, Fah(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice with liver xeno-repopulation from human hepatocytes accumulate significant levels of HBV DNA and HBV proteins. Our new protocol for humanized liver could be applied in the study of human hepatitis virus infection in vivo, as well as the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of potential vaccines.

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Anti C Reactive Protein A Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon CELLKINES Natural Human I Human Interleukin-4 IL-4 Human Interleukin-6 IL-6 Human Interleukin-7 IL-7 Human Interleukin-2 IL-2 Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Insulin-like Growth

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Effect of Campylobacter rectus LPS on plasminogen activator-plasmin system in human gingival fibroblast cells.

The plasminogen activator (PA)-plasmin system is implicated in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in inflammation through activation of metalloproteases and prekallikrein. We examined the activation of the PA-plasmin system in human gingival fibroblast cells (Gin-1 cells) following treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Campylobacter rectus, which is frequently detected at sites of periodontal disease. The C. rectus LPS stimulated the plasmin activity in the conditioned medium of Gin-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and C. rectus LPS also stimulated the PA activity in the conditioned medium. The PA produced by Gin-1 cells was determined to be urokinase PA (uPA), as preincubation of Gin-1 conditioned medium with anti-uPA antiserum completely inhibited the PA activity while that with anti-tPA antiserum had no inhibitory effect. The concentration of PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the conditioned medium was decreased by the addition of C. rectus LPS. Therefore, the enhancement of plasmin activity in the conditioned medium was dependent on increased uPA activity via the decrease of the PAI-1 level of Gin-1 cells treated with C. rectus LPS. Furthermore, the conditioned medium of Gin-1 cells treated with C. rectus LPS showed significantly increased kallikrein activity, indicating the conversion of prekallikrein to kallikrein, which converts kininogen into kinin. These findings suggest that C. rectus LPS is a potent stimulator of inflammation of gingival tissue which acts through stimulation of the PA-plasmin system.

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Human tissue plasminogen Human tissue plasminogen Mouse Anti-Human Tissue P Rabbit Anti-Human Tissue Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Human Small Intestine Mic Human Large Intestine Mic Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla

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Characterization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator of rat decidual tissue.

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) from artificially induced decidual tissue of rat has been purified to homogeneity employing chromatographic techniques and the final preparation has a specific activity of 12,084 I.U./mg. The purified preparation resolves into a single band following SDS-PAGE and has an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa. HPLC of the purified fraction also yields a single peak at 45 kDa. Decidual uPA is immunogenic in rabbit and a monospecific antiserum raised against it does not cross react with human melanoma tPA or rat Yoshida sarcoma tPA but elicits a precipitin reaction with human uPA and extracts of rat placenta and kidney. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.5, a kM of 1.0 microM, is heat stable upto ten minutes at 42 degrees C and inhibited by anti-uPA IgG.

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Physical association of complement receptor type 3 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in neutrophil membranes.

A previous study has shown that Fc gamma RIIIB (CD16), an extensively glycosylated glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked neutrophil membrane protein, specifically co-caps with the iC3b R (CR3; CD11b/CD18). This study tests the possible physical interactions of another extensively glycosylated glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), with CR3. Receptors were labeled using fluorochrome-conjugated F(ab')2 fragments of an anti-CR3 mAb. In some cases cells were capped using second step F(ab')2 fragments of an anti-mouse F(ab')2 antiserum. After 30 min at 37 degrees C, 65 +/- 4% of the cells exhibited CR3 caps whereas 61 +/- 2% demonstrated uPAR caps. When CR3-capped cells were probed with F(ab')2 fragments of anti-uPAR conjugated to a distinct fluorochrome, 45 +/- 3% of the cells co-capped uPAR. When uPAR was capped, 48 +/- 2% of the cells co-capped CR3. Similar levels of co-capping were observed using a DNP-conjugated anti-CR3 F(ab')2 and an anti-DNP second step F(ab')2 reagent for capping or using FITC-uPA as a probing reagent. Furthermore, CR3-uPAR co-capping and/or co-clustering was also observed using anti-CR3 IgM and Mn2+ as integrin aggregation stimuli. Significant co-capping of anti-CD14, anti-CD59, anti-Mo5, anti-HLA, or NBD-PE (a lipid probe) was not observed. Moreover, CR3 and uPAR co-capping was blocked by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, but not by six other saccharides, suggesting that a lectin-like site may participate in co-capping. This suggests that CR3 may regulate adhesive events by several mechanisms, including the regulation of the spatial distribution of uPAR.

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Partial apolipoprotein E-beta-galactosidase fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli retains binding activity to the LDL(B/E) receptor.

A partial rat apo E-beta-galactosidase fusion protein was produced in Escherichia coli Y1089 infected with recombinant lambda GT11 obtained by immunoscreening of a rat liver cDNA library with an anti-rat LDL antiserum. Partial cDNA overlapped the apo E mRNA sequence coding for apo E binding domain towards the LDL(B/E) receptor up to codon for Arg-139. Fusion protein specifically bound to human fibroblasts. The high-affinity component exhibited a Kd of 5 x 10(-8) M and 4.1 x 10(5) sites per cell. Fusion protein binding to fibroblasts was mediated by their apo E moiety and not by beta-galactosidase since: (1) specific binding of fusion protein was competed out by human LDL; (2) beta-galactosidase did not compete with fusion protein binding; and (3) human fibroblasts from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, deficient in LDL(B/E) receptor, bound fusion protein 10-times lower than control fibroblasts. It was demonstrated that partial fusion protein retained the functional activity of the native apo E. However, compared to full-length native or engineered apo E, fusion protein was able to bind fibroblasts without being complexed with phospholipids. Fusion proteins might be a useful tool for studying the functional efficiency of the LDL(B/E) receptor and for mapping residues and domains involved in the binding process.

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