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           Search results for: Alleleustrious pWasabi_H2B fusion vector H2B   

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A stable but reversible integrated surrogate reporter for assaying CRISPR/Cas9-stimulated homology-directed repair.

The discovery and application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for genome editing has greatly accelerated targeted mutagenesis in a variety of organisms. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-specific cleavage is typically exploited for the generation of insertions or deletions (indels) after aberrant dsDNA repair via the endogenous non-homology end-joining (NHEJ) pathway or, alternatively, for enhancing homology-directed repair to facilitate the generation of a specific mutation (or "knock-in"). However, there is a need for efficient cellular assays that can measure Cas9/guide RNA activity. Reliable methods for enriching and identifying desired mutants are also lacking. Here we describe a method using the Piggybac transposon for stable genomic integration of an H2B-GFP reporter or a hygromycin resistance gene for assaying Cas9 target cleavage and homology-directed repair. The H2B-GFP fusion protein provides increased stability and an obvious pattern of nuclear localization. This method, called SRIRACCHA (i.e. a stable, but reversible, integrated reporter for assaying CRISPR/Cas-stimulated HDR activity), enables the enrichment of mutants via selection of GFP-positive or hygromycin-resistant mammalian cells (immortalized or non-immortalized) as a surrogate for the modification of the endogenous target site. Currently available hyperactive Piggybac transposase mutants allow both delivery and removal of the surrogate reporters, with minimal risk of generating undesirable mutations. This assay permits rapid screening for efficient guide RNAs and the accelerated identification of mutant clones and is applicable to many cell types. We foresee the utility of this approach in contexts in which the maintenance of genomic integrity is essential, for example, when engineering cells for therapeutic purposes.

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Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking.

Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains.

2048 related Products with: Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking.

Human Neuron-specific eno Mouse Anti-Human Neuron S Actin, Muscle Specific; Actin, Muscle Specific; PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A PSAP (Prostate Specific PSAP (Prostate Specific PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A Actin, Muscle Specific; PSA (Prostate Specific A

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A method to facilitate and monitor expression of exogenous genes in the rat kidney using plasmid and viral vectors.

Gene therapy has been proposed as a novel alternative to treat kidney disease. This goal has been hindered by the inability to reliably deliver transgenes to target cells throughout the kidney, while minimizing injury. Since hydrodynamic forces have previously shown promising results, we optimized this approach and designed a method that utilizes retrograde renal vein injections to facilitate transgene expression in rat kidneys. We show, using intravital fluorescence two-photon microscopy, that fluorescent albumin and dextrans injected into the renal vein under defined conditions of hydrodynamic pressure distribute broadly throughout the kidney in live animals. We found injection parameters that result in no kidney injury as determined by intravital microscopy, histology, and serum creatinine measurements. Plasmids, baculovirus, and adenovirus vectors, designed to express EGFP, EGFP-actin, EGFP-occludin, EGFP-tubulin, tdTomato-H2B, or RFP-actin fusion proteins, were introduced into live kidneys in a similar fashion. Gene expression was then observed in live and ex vivo kidneys using two-photon imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We recorded widespread fluorescent protein expression lasting more than 1 mo after introduction of transgenes. Plasmid and adenovirus vectors provided gene transfer efficiencies ranging from 50 to 90%, compared with 10-50% using baculovirus. Using plasmids and adenovirus, fluorescent protein expression was observed 1) in proximal and distal tubule epithelial cells; 2) within glomeruli; and 3) within the peritubular interstitium. In isolated kidneys, fluorescent protein expression was observed from the cortex to the papilla. These results provide a robust approach for gene delivery and the study of protein function in live mammal kidneys.

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Establishment of conditional reporter mouse lines at ROSA26 locus for live cell imaging.

A series of conditional reporter mouse lines were established in which specific organelles were labeled with fluorescent proteins. Subcellular localization and intensity of 28 fluorescent fusion-protein constructs were surveyed in cell lines, and 16 constructs then were selected to generate mouse lines. The fusion cDNAs were inserted into the ROSA26 genomic locus next to the stop sequences flanked with loxP so that fluorescent proteins were expressed under the ubiquitous ROSA26 transcriptional machinery when the loxP sequences were recombined with Cre. The subcellular localization and intensity of the fusion product in each reporter mouse line were examined by ubiquitously expressing them in E7.5 embryos. Twelve reporter lines, that mark nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, microtubule, actin filament, and focal adhesion, were found suitable for live imaging. Distinct double staining was demonstrated for nucleus and plasma membrane or Golgi apparatus; clear time-lapse live images were obtained for nucleus and plasma membranes; conditional expression was confirmed on Lyn-Venus and H2B-mCherry lines in notochord with Not-Cre.

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Nucleosomal H2B ubiquitylation with purified factors.

Diverse histone modifications play important roles in transcriptional regulation throughout eukaryotes, and recent studies have implicated histone H2B ubiquitylation in active transcription. The necessity of at least three enzymes (E1-E3), as well as ongoing transcription events, for efficient H2B ubiquitylation complicates mechanistic studies of H2B ubiquitylation relative to other histone modifications. Here we describe experimental protocols for preparation of human H2B ubiquitylation factors, ubiquitylation substrates and transcription factors, as well as the use of these factors to establish H2B ubiquitylation mechanisms during transcription. The methods include reliable protein interaction and E3 ubiquitylation assays that can be widely applied to confirm cognate E2-E3 pairs in other protein ubiquitylation systems, optimized in vitro ubiquitylation assays for various histone substrates, and a transcription-coupled H2B ubiquitylation assay in a highly purified transcription system. These comprehensive analyses have revealed (i) that RAD6 serves as the cognate E2 for the BRE1 complex in human cells, as previously established in yeast, (ii) that RAD6, through direct interaction with the BRE1 complex, ubiquitylates chromatinized H2B at lysine 120 and (iii) that PAF1 complex-mediated transcription is required for efficient H2B ubiquitylation. This experimental system permits detailed mechanistic analyses of H2B ubiquitylation during transcription by providing information concerning both precise enzyme functions and physical interactions between the transcription and histone modification machineries.

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An inducible Tet-Off-H2B-GFP lentiviral reporter vector for detection and in vivo isolation of label-retaining cells.

Many regenerative cells are label-retaining cells (LRCs) due to their ability to keep a DNA label over a prolonged time. Until recently, isolation of vital LRCs was hampered due to the necessary use of fixation methods. To circumvent this, we generated a lentiviral-(HIV-1) based vector expressing a Tet-Off controlled histone 2B-GFP (Tet-Off-H2B-GFP) reporter gene for the detection and isolation of viable LRCs. In initial experiments, the vector was successfully used to infect 2- and 3-dimensional tissue culture models. Infected cultures from skin and pancreatic cells showed a very tight regulation of H2B-GFP, were sensitive to minimal amounts of doxycycline (Dox) and had a stable transgenic expression over the time of this study. Our lentiviral vector represents a reliable and easy to handle system for the successful infection, detection and isolation of LRCs from various tissues in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo.

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High resolution cell lineage tracing reveals developmental variability in leech.

Knowing the normal patterns of embryonic cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation is a cornerstone for understanding development. Yet for most species, the precision with which embryonic cell lineages can be determined is limited by technical considerations (the large numbers of cells, extended developmental times, opacity of the embryos), and these are exacerbated by the inherent variability of the lineages themselves. Here, we present an improved method of cell lineage tracing in the leech Helobdella, driving the expression of a nuclearly localized histone H2B:GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein in selected lineages by microinjection of a plasmid vector. This construct generates a long lasting and minimally mosaic signal with single cell resolution, and does not disrupt the development of most lineages tested. We have validated this technique by elucidating details of cell lineages contributing to segmental and prostomial tissues that could not be observed with standard dextran lineage tracers.

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Direct observation of histone H2B-YFP fusion proteins and transport of their mRNA between conjugating Paramecia.

Cytoplasmic exchange between conjugating cells of Paramecium caudatum has been implicated by mating experiments using wild-type and behavioral mutant cells. To observe macromolecular transport between mating cells, we cloned and expressed the P. caudatum histone H2B gene as a fusion protein attached to an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) named PcVenus. Significant fluorescent signals derived from histone H2B-PcVenus were detected throughout the macro- and micronuclei of transformant cells after microinjection of the expression vector. The normal growth and high mating reactivity of the transformants indicated that H2B-PcVenus functioned normally. Seven hours after a transformant cell expressing histone H2B-PcVenus was mated with an untransformed complementary mating-type cell, fluorescence derived from histone H2B-PcVenus was emitted from the macronuclei of the untransformed cell. About 48 h later, the fluorescent signal was detected not only in the macro- and micronuclei of untransformed cells but also in the macronuclear anlagen of both mating cells. This suggests that conjugant cells share parental histones during meiosis and subsequent DNA rearrangement. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of H2B-PcVenus mRNA in untransformed cells 15 and 24 h after conjugation. We concluded that at least the mRNA of histone H2B-PcVenus was transferred from the transformed, to the untransformed cell during conjugation.

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Insertion of a loxP site in a size-reduced human accessory chromosome.

The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with regard to the number of copies. The expression level of the fusion protein was stable over prolonged time in culture.

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Feasibility of CTLA4Ig gene delivery and expression in vivo using retrovirally transduced myeloid dendritic cells that induce alloantigen-specific T cell anergy in vitro.

Dendritic cells (DC) are highly specialised, bone marrow (BM)-derived antigen-presenting cells (APC) that initiate and regulate immune responses. They provide costimulatory signals (in particular, CD40 and the CD28 ligands CD80 and CD86) necessary for naive T cell activation. Functional expression of CD80 and CD86 is blocked by the fusion protein cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig), that promotes tolerance induction in animals. Here, replicating mouse (B10; H2b) myeloid DC progenitors, were retrovirally transduced to express CTLA4Ig using the centrifugal enhancement method. Gene product was detected by immunocyto- or histochemistry. Maximal DC transduction efficiency was 62%. Compared with control, zeomycin-resistance gene (Zeo)-transduced DC, CTLA4Ig-expressing cells showed markedly impaired capacity to stimulate naive allogeneic (C3H; H2k) T cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation. Their ability to induce alloantigen-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness was reversed by exogenous IL-2 in secondary mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Following local (s.c.) transfer to allogeneic recipients, the genetically modified DC trafficked to T cell areas of draining lymphoid tissue, where transgene expression was detected. Ex vivo analysis of proliferative and CTL responses revealed donor-specific inhibition of alloimmune reactivity by the CTLA4Ig-transduced DC. This effect was associated with marked inhibition of interferon (IFN)-gamma production, but significant augmentation of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion. Thus, retroviral transduction of DC permits in vivo delivery of CTLA4Ig to the precise microenvironment where antigen (Ag) presentation occurs. Comparatively nonimmunogenic retroviral vectors, that allow permanent transgene expression in DC, and promote localized delivery of the immunosuppressive transgene product, promote immune deviation and Ag-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness.

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