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Akt2 Stabilizes ATP7A, a Copper Transporter for SOD3 (Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase), in Vascular Smooth Muscles: Novel Mechanism to Limit Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Copper transporter ATP7A (copper-transporting/exporting ATPase) is required for full activation of SOD3 (extracellular superoxide dismutase), which is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and anchors to endothelial cell surface to preserve endothelial function by scavenging extracellular superoxide. We reported that ATP7A protein expression and SOD3 activity are decreased in insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes mellitus vessels, thereby, inducing superoxide-mediated endothelial dysfunction, which are rescued by insulin treatment. However, it is unknown regarding the mechanism by which insulin increases ATP7A expression in VSMCs and whether ATP7A downregulation is observed in T2DM mice and human in which insulin-Akt pathway is selectively impaired.

1926 related Products with: Akt2 Stabilizes ATP7A, a Copper Transporter for SOD3 (Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase), in Vascular Smooth Muscles: Novel Mechanism to Limit Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Top 4 types of cancer (co  EpiQuik Superoxide Dism Recombinant Human Interfe ABT-263 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 AZD-8055 Mechanisms: mTOR AZD-2014 Mechanisms: mTOR BIBW-2992 (Afatinib) Mech AZD-2281 (Olaparib) Mecha AP-24534 (Ponatinib) Mech AMG-208 Mechanisms: c-MET Homogenizer for 24 sample High density (188 cases 2

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Phlpp inhibitors block pain and cartilage degradation associated with osteoarthritis.

Phlpp protein phosphatases are abnormally abundant within human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes and may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Mice lacking Phlpp1 were previously shown to be resistant to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Here a small molecule with therapeutic properties that inhibits Phlpp1 and Phlpp2 was tested for its ability to slow post-traumatic OA in mice and to stimulate anabolic pathways in human articular cartilage from OA joints. PTOA was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by surgically destabilizing the meniscus. Seven weeks after surgery, mice received a single intra-articular injection of the Phlpp inhibitor NSC117079 or saline. Mechanical allodynia was measured with von Frey assays, mobility was tracked in an open field system, and cartilage damage was assessed histologically. A single intra-articular injection of the Phlpp inhibitor NSC117079 attenuated mechanical allodynia and slowed articular cartilage degradation in joints with a destabilized meniscus. Animals treated with the Phlpp inhibitor 7 weeks after injury maintained normal activity levels, while those in the control group traveled shorter distances and were less active 3 months after the joint injury. NSC117079 also increased production of cartilage extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycans and aggrecan) in over 90% of human articular cartilage explants from OA patients and increased phosphorylation of Phlpp1 substrates (AKT2, ERK1/2, and PKC) in human articular chondrocytes. Our results indicate that Phlpp inhibitor NSC117079 is a novel osteoarthritis disease modifying drug candidate that may have palliative affects. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

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Oral siRNA Delivery to Treat Colorectal Liver Metastases.

Convenient multiple dosing makes oral administration an ideal route for delivery of therapeutic siRNA. However, hostile GI environments and nonspecific biological trafficking prevent achieving appropriate bioavailability of siRNA. Here, an orally administered AuNP-siRNA-glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid nanoparticle (AR-GT NPs) was developed to selectively deliver Akt2 siRNA and treat colorectal liver metastases (CLM). AR-GT NPs are dual padlocked nonviral vectors in which the initially formed AuNP-siRNA (AR) conjugates are further encompassed by bifunctional glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid (GT) conjugates. Covering the surface of AR with GT protected the Akt2 siRNA from GI degradation, facilitated active transport through enterocytes, and enhanced selective accumulation in CLM. Our studies in CLM animal models resulted in the reduction in Akt2 production, followed by initiation of apoptosis in cancer cells after oral administration of Akt2 siRNA-loaded AR-GT. This therapeutic siRNA delivery system may be a promising approach in treating liver-associated diseases.

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ENZYMATIC ASSAY KITS (CH LIVER DISEASES Total Bile LIVER DISEASES Total Bile Oral cavity (tongue and p Oral squamous cell cancer Topoisomerase II; Clone Topoisomerase II; Clone Topoisomerase II; Clone Toludine Blue Solution Toludine Blue Solution Toludine Blue Solution Scrambled siRNA

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Bcl3 Phosphorylation by Akt, Erk2, and IKK Is Required for Its Transcriptional Activity.

Unlike prototypical IκB proteins, which are inhibitors of NF-κB RelA, cRel, and RelB dimers, the atypical IκB protein Bcl3 is primarily a transcriptional coregulator of p52 and p50 homodimers. Bcl3 exists as phospho-protein in many cancer cells. Unphosphorylated Bcl3 acts as a classical IκB-like inhibitor and removes p50 and p52 from bound DNA. Neither the phosphorylation site(s) nor the kinase(s) phosphorylating Bcl3 is known. Here we show that Akt, Erk2, and IKK1/2 phosphorylate Bcl3. Phosphorylation of Ser33 by Akt induces switching of K48 ubiquitination to K63 ubiquitination and thus promotes nuclear localization and stabilization of Bcl3. Phosphorylation by Erk2 and IKK1/2 of Ser114 and Ser446 converts Bcl3 into a transcriptional coregulator by facilitating its recruitment to DNA. Cells expressing the S114A/S446A mutant have cellular proliferation and migration defects. This work links Akt and MAPK pathways to NF-κB through Bcl3 and provides mechanistic insight into how Bcl3 functions as an oncoprotein through collaboration with IKK1/2, Akt, and Erk2.

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MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Akt Inhibitor, Isozyme Se Isopeptidase T (short for Isopeptidase T (long form NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P 4-Amino-5-formylamino-3-i (3R,4S,5R,6S)-1-Aza-4-hyd AKT Phospho-Specific Arra AKT PKB Signaling Phospho RABBIT ANTI GSK3 BETA (pS Rabbit Anti-ERK2 MAPK1 Po

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Comparison of the PI3KCA pathway in circulating tumor cells and corresponding tumor tissue of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

The aim of the present study was to compare the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KCA)-AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) pathway in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and corresponding cancerous tissues. Stemness‑like circulating tumor cells (slCTCs) and CTCs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been implicated as the active source of metastatic spread in breast cancer (BC). In this regard, the PI3KCA‑AKT signaling pathway was demonstrated to be implicated in and to be frequently mutated in BC. The present study compared this pathway in slCTCs/CTCs in EMT and the corresponding tumor tissues of 90 metastatic BC patients (pts). slCTCs and CTCs in EMT were isolated using the AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCell for the detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1) (singleplex PCR) and PI3KCA, AKT2 and twist family bHLH transcription factor 1 (multiplex PCR). Tumor tissue was investigated for PI3KCA hotspot mutations using Sanger sequencing of genomic DNA from micro‑dissected formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded tissue, and for the expression of ALDH1 and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss, by immunohistochemistry. slCTCs were identified in 23% of pts (21/90 pts) and CTCs in EMT in 56% (50/90 pts) of pts. pAKT and ALDH1 positivity in tumor tissue was identified in 47 and 9% of cases, respectively, and a PTEN loss was observed in 18% of pts. A significant association was detected between pAKT expression in cancerous tissue and AKT2 expression in CTCs (P=0.037). PI3KCA mutations were detected in 32% of pts, most frequently on exons 21 (55%) and 10 (45%). Pts with PI3KCA mutations in tumor tissue had a significantly longer overall survival than pts with wild-type PI3KCA expression (P=0.007). Similar results were obtained for pts with aberrant PI3KCA signaling in CTCs and/or aberrant signaling in cancerous tissue (P=0.009). Therapy‑resistant CTCs, potentially derived from the primary tumor or metastatic tissue, may be eliminated with specific PI3K pathway inhibitors, alone or in combination, to improve the prognosis of metastatic BC pts.

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Poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP) 1 expression is regulated at the post-translation level in thyroid carcinoma.

Poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP) 1 or heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 is a RNA binding protein that plays a vital role in a wide variety of biological processes. PCBP1 has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating translation of pro-metastatic proteins in different cancers. Loss of PCBP1 expression or its Akt2-mediated phosphorylation at serine 43 residue has both been indicated to de-repress its regulation of EMT inducer proteins. Our previous work has established that PCBP1 functions as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer, where its translation is inhibited by microRNA-490-3p. Here we show that thyroid cancer patients can be divided into 2 cohorts based on miR-490-3p expression and PCBP1 mRNA expression-one cohort with high PCBP1 mRNA expression and basal miR-490-3p expression and a second cohort with low PCBP1 mRNA expression and high miR-490-3p expression. However, PCBP1 protein expression is also downregulated in the cohort with high PCBP1 mRNA expression, with expression levels similar to what is observed in patients with the low PCBP1 mRNA expression. Our analysis shows that PCBP1 mRNA is actively translated in patients with high PCBP1 mRNA expression, but that the protein is post translationally degraded by the proteasome machinery. Our results thus elucidate a novel mechanism responsible for down regulation of PCBP1 expression in thyroid cancer. It will be important in future to identify the mechanism that causes degradation of PCBP1 protein and to identify if similar mechanisms are active in other tumors characterized by low PCBP1 protein expression.

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AKT-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum var. albescens.

Wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum) is one of well-known medicinal plants traditionally used in Korea and China. As a variant of wild chrysanthemum, white wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum var. albescens) is also ethnopharmacologically applied to treat various symptoms such as inflammatory diseases.

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ANTI ACTIVATED X FACTOR A Rabbit anti AKT (Ab-473) Rabbit anti Akt (Ab-308) Rabbit anti AKT-2 (Ab-474 Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit Anti-phospho-AKT P Rabbit Anti-phospho-AKT P Rabbit Anti-phospho-AKT P Rabbit Anti-phospho-AKT P Rabbit Anti-phospho-AKT P

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AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (EndoG) While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia.

The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2-/-) mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C) together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited.

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Cool-associated Tyrosine-phosphorylated Protein 1 Is Required for the Anchorage-independent Growth of Cervical Carcinoma Cells by Binding Paxillin and Promoting AKT Activation.

Cool-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated protein 1 (Cat-1) is a signaling scaffold as well as an ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase-activating protein. Although best known for its role in cell migration, we recently showed that the ability of Cat-1 to bind paxillin, a major constituent of focal complexes, is also essential for the anchorage-independent growth of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we set out to learn more about the underlying mechanism by which Cat-paxillin interactions mediate this effect. We show that knocking down paxillin expression in HeLa cells promotes their ability to form colonies in soft agar, whereas ectopically expressing paxillin in these cells inhibits this transformed growth phenotype. Although knocking down Cat-1 prevents HeLa cells from forming colonies in soft agar, when paxillin is knocked down together with Cat-1, the cells are again able to undergo anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest that the requirement of Cat-1 for this hallmark of cellular transformation is coupled to its ability to bind paxillin and abrogate its actions as a negative regulator of anchorage-independent growth. We further show that knocking down Cat-1 expression in HeLa cells leads to a reduction in Akt activation, which can be reversed by knocking down paxillin. Moreover, expression of constitutively active forms of Akt1 and Akt2 restores the anchorage-independent growth capability of HeLa cells depleted of Cat-1 expression. Together, these findings highlight a novel mechanism whereby interactions between Cat-1 and its binding partner paxillin are necessary to ensure sufficient Akt activation so that cancer cells are able to grow under anchorage-independent conditions.

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Role of Akt2 in regulation of metastasis suppressor 1 expression and colorectal cancer metastasis.

Survival signaling is critical for the metastatic program of cancer cells. The current study investigated the role of Akt survival proteins in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and explored potential mechanisms of Akt-mediated metastasis regulation. Using an orthotopic implantation model in mice, which uniquely recapitulates the entire multistep process of CRC metastasis, combined with an inducible system of short hairpin RNA-mediated Akt isoform knockdown in human CRC cells, our studies confirm a role of Akt2 in CRC cell dissemination to distant organs in vivo. Akt2 deficiency profoundly inhibited the development of liver lesions in mice, whereas Akt1 had no effect under the experimental conditions used in the study. Array analysis of human metastatic genes identified the scaffolding protein metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) as a novel Akt2-regulated gene. Inducible loss of Akt2 in CRC cells robustly upregulated MTSS1 at the messenger RNA and protein level, and the accumulated protein was functionally active as shown by its ability to engage an MTSS1-Src-cortactin inhibitory axis. MTSS1 expression led to a marked reduction in levels of functional cortacin (pcortactin Y421), an actin nucleation-promoting factor that has a crucial role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. MTSS1 was also shown to mediate suppressive effects of Akt2 deficiency on CRC cell viability, survival, migration and actin polymerization in vitro. The relevance of these findings to human CRC is supported by analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and NCBI GEO data sets, which demonstrated inverse changes in expression of Akt2 and MTSS1 during CRC progression. Taken together, the data identify MTSS1 as a new Akt2-regulated gene, and point to suppression of MTSS1 as a key step in the metastasis-promoting effects of Akt2 in CRC cells.

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