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#27662513   2016/09/23 Save this To Up

Manipulating adenoviral vector ion-exchange chromatography: Hexon versus fiber.

The serotype specificity of adenovirus ion-exchange chromatography has previously been studied using standard particle-based columns, and the hexon protein has been reported to determine retention time. In this study, we have submitted Adenovirus type 5 recombinants to anion-exchange chromatography using methacrylate monolithic supports. Our experiments with hexon-modified adenoviral vectors show more precisely that the retention time is affected by the substitution of amino acids in hypervariable region 5, which lies within the hexon DE1 loop. By exploring the recombinants modified in the fiber protein, we have proven the previously predicted chromatographic potential of this surface constituent. Modifications that preserve the net charge of the hexon protein, or those that cause only a small charge difference in the fiber protein, in addition to shortening the fiber shaft, did not change the chromatographic behavior of the adenovirus particles. However, modifications that include the deletion of just two negatively charged amino acids in the hexon protein, or the introduction of a heterologous fiber protein, derived from another serotype, revealed recognizable changes in anion-exchange chromatography. This could be useful in facilitating chromatography-approach purification by creating targeted capsid modifications, thereby shifting adenovirus particles away from particular interfering substances present in the crude lysate.

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#27047064   2016/04/06 Save this To Up

Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75.

Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3C(pro) and its characterization.

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#25432087   2014/12/30 Save this To Up

Use of tangential flow filtration for improving detection of viral adventitious agents in cell substrates.

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of tangential flow filtration (TFF) for primary concentration of viral adventitious agents (AAs) from large volumes of cell substrate-derived samples, such as cell-free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) culture supernatants (500 mL) and CHO cell lysates (50 mL), prior to virus detection in them by nucleic acid-based methods (i.e., qPCR and massively parallel sequencing (MPS). The study was conducted using the samples spiked with four model DNA viruses (bovine herpesvirus type 4, human adenovirus type 5, simian polyomavirus SV-40, and bovine parvovirus). The results showed that the combined TFF/MPS approach enables reliable detection of as low as 1000 genome equivalents (GE) of each of the four viruses spiked into the cell substrate samples. The final achieved sensitivities of 2 GE/mL for cell culture supernatant and 20 GE/mL for cell lysate make this approach more sensitive than virus-specific PCR and qPCR assays. The study results allowed us to propose that TFF might be useful and valuable method for simple and rapid concentration of potential AAs in cell substrate samples prior to AAs detection by conventional in vivo, in vitro, or molecular methods.

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#23555056   2013/04/04 Save this To Up

iTRAQ-Based and Label-Free Proteomics Approaches for Studies of Human Adenovirus Infections.

Both isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and label-free methods are widely used for quantitative proteomics. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of these proteomics approaches based on large datasets from biological samples. iTRAQ-label-based and label-free quantitations were compared using protein lysate samples from noninfected human lung epithelial A549 cells and from cells infected for 24 h with human adenovirus type 3 or type 5. Either iTRAQ-label-based or label-free methods were used, and the resulting samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). To reduce a possible bias from quantitation software, we applied several software packages for each procedure. ProteinPilot and Scaffold Q+ software were used for iTRAQ-labeled samples, while Progenesis LC-MS and ProgenesisF-T2PQ/T3PQ were employed for label-free analyses. R (2) correlation coefficients correlated well between two software packages applied to the same datasets with values between 0.48 and 0.78 for iTRAQ-label-based quantitations and 0.5 and 0.86 for label-free quantitations. Analyses of label-free samples showed higher levels of protein up- or downregulation in comparison to iTRAQ-labeled samples. The concentration differences were further evaluated by Western blotting for four downregulated proteins. These data suggested that the label-free method was more accurate than the iTRAQ method.

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#23427083   2013/04/16 Save this To Up

Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors induces blood pressure responses to intracellular angiotensin II in AT(1a) receptor-deficient mice.

The role of intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors in the cortex mediates intracellular ANG II-induced blood pressure responses in AT(1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice. A GFP-tagged AT(1a) receptor, AT(1a)R/GFP, and an enhanced cyan fluorescent intracellular ANG II fusion protein, ECFP/ANG II, were expressed in proximal tubules of Agtr1a-/- mouse kidneys via the adenoviral transfer using a sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 promoter. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone or with ECFP/ANG II induced proximal tubule-dominant expression of AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II with a peak response at 2 wk. No significant AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II expression was observed in the glomeruli, medulla, or extrarenal tissues. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone, but not ECFP/ANG II, increased systolic blood pressure by 12 ± 2 mmHg by day 14 (n = 9, P < 0.01). However, cotransfer of AT(1a)R/GFP with ECFP/ANG II increased blood pressure by 18 ± 2 mmHg (n = 12, P < 0.01). Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion was decreased by day 7 with proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone (P < 0.01) or with AT(1a)R/GFP and ECFP/ANG II cotransfer (P < 0.01). These responses were associated with twofold increases in phosphorylated ERK1/2, lysate, and membrane NHE-3 proteins in freshly isolated proximal tubules (P < 0.01). By contrast, transfer of control CMV-GFP (a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter), ECFP/ANG II, or a scrambled control ECFP/ANG IIc alone in proximal tubules had no effect on all indices. These results suggest that AT(1a) receptors and intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney play an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation.

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#22922762   2012/09/12 Save this To Up

ERG is specifically associated with ETS-2 and ETV-4, but not with ETS-1, in prostate cancer.

The erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays important roles in both physiological and pathological conditions. Even though many studies have focused on single ETS factors within a single tissue and within the context of specific promoters, the functional impact of multiple ETS members present within a specific cell type has not yet been investigated, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). As the most prominent gene rearrangement in PCa leads to the overexpression of the ETS-related gene (ERG), the aim of this study was to investigate whether ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors. More specifically, as the ETS family consists of 27 members, we focused our efforts initially on investigating whether ERG is associated with the three family members, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETS variant gene‑4 (ETV‑4), in PCa as a proof of principle. Using western blot analysis, we show that ERG, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETV-4 are expressed in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and in protein lysates prepared from human PCa prostatectomy specimens. Immunoprecipitations using an anti-ERG antibody were used with PC3 cell nuclear extracts as well as with a pooled protein lysate sample prepared from the PCa tissue samples of five patients. Importantly, our results revealed that ERG is specifically associated with ETS-2 and ETV-4, but not with ETS-1, in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and PCa tissue protein lysates. Our findings strongly support the notion that ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors, which are likely to cooperate or influence the activity of ERG in PCa. The functional impact of multiple ETS factors being associated with ERG in PCa requires further study, as it may provide insights into the mechanism by which ERG exerts its influence in PCa and may subsequently contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of PCa.

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#19041094   2009/03/09 Save this To Up

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of adenovirus type 5 particles with a prototype anion-exchange analytical monolith column.

To support effective process development there is a requirement for rapid analytical methods that can identify and quantitate adenoviral particles throughout the manufacturing process, from cellular lysate through to purified adenovirus. An anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) particles has been developed using a novel quaternary amine monolithic column (Bio-Monolith QA, Agilent). The developed method separates intact Ad5 from contaminating proteins and DNA, thus allowing analysis of non-purified samples during process development. Regeneration conditions were incorporated to extend the functional life of the column. Once developed, the method was qualified according to performance criteria of repeatability, intermediate precision and linearity. The linear working range of analysis was established between 7.5 x 10(8) to at least 2.4 x 10(10) viral particles (3 x 10(10) to 9.6 x 10(11) viral particles/mL), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day repeatability and precision for retention time and peak area were less than 1 and 2.5%, respectively.

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#16566451   2006/03/28 Save this To Up

Tumorigenicity assessments of Per.C6 cells and of an Ad5-vectored HIV-1 vaccine produced on this continuous cell line.

PER.C6, a cell line derived from human embryonic retinal cells transformed with the Adenovirus Type 5 (Ad5) E1A and E1B genes, is used to produce E1-deleted Ad5 vectors such as the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine. While whole, live PER.C6 cells are capable of growing as tumours when transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient nude mice at a high dosage, the process for vaccine production includes filtration steps and other methods which effectively preclude contamination by intact viable substrate cells. However, because of the neoplastic nature of this cell line, we carried out a series of investigations to assess the tumorigenic risk posed by residuals from the cell substrate in a vaccine. To address concerns about transmission of oncogenic DNA, we demonstrated that purified PER.C6 cellular DNA does not induce tumours in newborn hamsters or nude mice. To address concerns about other potential residuals, including hypothetical adventitious tumour viruses, we demonstrated that a PER.C6 cell lysate and a MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine produced on PER.C6 cells do not induce tumours in newborn hamsters or newborn rats. These results, in conjunction with the wide panel of viral safety tests performed on these cells, support the safety of the PER.C6 as a cell substrate for vaccine production.

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#15641692   2005/01/11 Save this To Up

Effects of dendritic cells transfected with full length wild type P53 and modified by gastric cancer lysate on immune response.

To investigate the effects of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with full length wild type p53 and modified by gastric cancer lysates on immune response, the wild type P53 was transducted to DCs with adenovirus, and the DCs were modified by gastric cancer lysates (Lywt-P53DC). The concentration of the surface molecules (B7-1, B7-2, MHC-I , MHC-II) of all DCs was determined by FACS, and the ability of the DCs to induce efficient and specific immunological response in anti-51Cr-labeled target cells studied. BALB/c mice model infected with DCs and Mk28 was established. CTL response in mice immunized with Lywt-p53DC and the effectiveness of Lywt-p53DC in the treatment of tumor-bearing mice was assayed. FACS revealed that the surface molecules of Ly-wt-P53 DC had a high expression: for B7-1 86.70% +/- 0.07%, B7-2 18.77% +/- 0.08%, MHC-I 87.20% +/- 0.05%, MHC-II 56.70%+/-0.07%; The T lymphocytes had a specific CTL lysing ability induced by Lywt-P53DC with the CTL lysis rate being 81%. The immune protective effect of Lywt-p53DC group was more obvious than any other groups (P<0.05). The tumor diameter in Lywt-p53DC group was 3.10+/-0.31 mm, 2.73+/-0.23 mm, 3.70+/-0.07 mm on the day 13, 16 and 19, smaller than DC, wtp53DC and LyDC groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the growth rate of tumor in Lywt-p53DC group was slower than any other groups (P<0.05). It was suggested that DCs transfected with wild type P53 and modified by gastric cancer lysates had specific CTL killing capability.

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#11587348   2001/10/05 Save this To Up

Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantification of adenovirus type 5 particles.

An anion-exchange-high-performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) method for the quantification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) total particles was validated according to performance criteria of precision, specificity, linearity of calibration and range, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and recovery. The viral particles were detected by absorbance at 260 nm using photodiode array detector (PDA). Cesium chloride (CsCl) purified Ad5 and lysate samples were used for the validation of the method. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the inter-day, intra-day precision and reproducibility for both the lysate and the Ad5 standard were less than 10 and 2% for the peak area and retention time, respectively. The method was specific for Ad5 which was eluted at 8.0 min. The presence of DNA does not affect the recovery of Ad5 particles for accurate quantification. Based on the error in prediction to be less than 10%, the working range was established between 2 x 10(10) and 7 x 10(10) VP/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.99975, standard deviation of 6.14 x 10(9) VP/ml and a slope of 3.04 x 10(5) VP/ml. The recovery of the method varied between 88 and 106% in all of the lysate samples investigated which is statistically similar to 100% recovery at 95% confidence interval.

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