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           Search results for: Acylcholine acylhydrolase,BCHE,Bos taurus,Bovine,Butyrylcholine esterase,Choline esterase II,Cholinesterase,Pseudocholinesterase   

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Cholinesterase inhibition based determination of pancuronium bromide in biological samples.

Pancuronium bromide (PCBr) inhibition effect on enzyme cholinesterase from pooled human serum (Che, EC 3.1.1.8 acylcholine acylhydrolase) was used for development of a spectrophotometric kinetic method for PCBr determination in human serum and urine. Optimal conditions for the basic and inhibitor reactions were established: pH=7.7 and substrate concentration c(benzoylcholine chloride)=1.33 mmol/L. Kinetic parameters were also determined: Michaelis-Menten's constant K(M)=0.40 mmol/L, maximal reaction rate V(max)=52.2 micromol/L min, inhibition constant K(i)=0,56 micromol/L and IC(50)=1.31 micromol/L. Linear dependence between the reaction rate and inhibitor concentration exists in PCBr concentration range 8.20-68.25 nmol/L, which corresponds to the real sample concentrations from 0.328 to 2.730 micromol/L. The method detection and quantification limits were 2.01 nmol/L and 6.67 nmol/L, respectively. Precision of the method was tested for three pancuronium concentrations (10.70, 29.35 and 51.25 nmol/L). Relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range 0.15-7.45%. Accuracy was examined by standard addition method. Influence of the substances usually present in serum and urine on the reaction rate was tested. The developed method was applied for PCBr content determination in serum model samples, urine model samples and in urine taken during surgery. The method has good sensitivity, accuracy, precision and it is suitable for clinical practice.

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Development and application of serum cholinesterase activity measurement using benzoylthiocholine iodide.

Measurement of cholinesterase activity in serum is important to identify substantial liver disease and damage by pesticides, and to assess the degree of development of fatty liver and preoperative risk. Many procedures using various artificial substrates have been developed but suffer from problems with substrate specificity and interference by endogenous substances.

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The effects of Ni2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ on human serum butyrylcholinesterase.

The effects of Ni2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ on human serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, acylcholine acylhydrolase E.C. 3.1.1.8) were investigated in this study. Inhibition kinetics of BChE were studied using butyrylthiocholine (BTCh) as substrate. The "1/v" versus "1/[BTCh]" plots in the absence (control plot) and in the presence of the metal ions intersected above 1/[BTCh]-axis for all trace elements. In addition, when the concentrations of the cations were increased at 4 mM BTCh, velocities decreased and drove to zero at high concentrations of the trace elements. These results demonstrate that Ni2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ are linear mixed-type inhibitors of BChE. alphaK(i) values have been determined as 53.20 mM,152.25 mM, and 190.24 mM for Ni2+, Mn2+, and Co2+, respectively, by using nonlinear regression analysis. From the comparison of alphaK(i) values of the trace elements, it can be said that BChE has more affinty to binding Ni2+ than Co2+ and Mn2+.

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Inhibition effects of benactyzine and drofenine on human serum butyrylcholinesterase.

Benactyzine and drofenine are widely used anticholinergic drugs. Benactyzine is used to treat organophosphate poisoning and drofenine acts on smooth muscle to stop muscle spasms. Both of these drugs are esters. After they enter the bloodstream, they will interact with butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; acylcholine acyl hydrolase: EC 3.1.1.8), which has an ability to hydrolyze a wide variety of esters. Therefore, the kinetic analysis of their inhibitory effects on human serum BChE was examined using butyrylthiocholine as substrate. Both drugs were competitive inhibitors of BChE and the Ki values of benactyzine and drofenine were calculated to be 0.010 +/- 0.001 and 0.003 +/- 0.000 mM, respectively, using the Systat (version 5.03, 1991) nonlinear regression analysis software package. According to these parameters, drofenine is a more potent competitive inhibitor of BChE than benactyzine.

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A direct method to visualise the aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterases in polyacrylamide gels.

In vertebrates, two types of cholinesterases exist, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. The function of acetylcholinesterase is to hydrolyse acetylcholine, thereby terminating the neurotransmission at cholinergic synapse, while the precise physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase has not been identified. The presence of cholinesterases in tissues that are not cholinergically innervated indicate that cholinesterases may have functions unrelated to neurotransmission. Furthermore, cholinesterases display a genuine aryl acylamidase activity apart from their predominant acylcholine hydrolase activity. The physiological significance of this aryl acylamidase activity is also not known. The study on the aryl acylamidase has been, in part hampered by the lack of a specific method to visualise this activity. We have developed a method to visualise the aryl acylamidase activity on cholinesterase in polyacrylamide gels.

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Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a horse liver butyrylcholinesterase: evidence for CPT-11 drug activation.

Butyrylcholinesterases (BuChEs; acylcholine acylhydrolase; EC 3.1.1.8) have been demonstrated to convert the anticancer agent CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) into its active metabolite SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin). In addition, significant differences in the extent of drug metabolism have been observed with BuChEs derived from different species. In an attempt to understand these differences, we have isolated the cDNA encoding a horse BuChE. Based upon the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of a purified horse BuChE, we designed degenerate primers to amplify the coding sequence from horse liver cDNA. Following polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends, we generated an 1850-bp DNA fragment, containing an 1806-bp open reading frame. The cDNA encodes a protein of 602 amino acid residues, including a 28-amino-acid NH2-terminal signal peptide. Furthermore, the DNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence revealed extensive homology to butyrylcholinesterase genes from several other species. In vitro transcription-translation of the cDNA produced a 66-kDa protein, identical to the size of native horse serum BuChE following removal of carbohydrate residues with endoglycosidase F. Additionally, transient expression of the cDNA in Cos-7 cells yielded extracts that exhibited cholinesterase activity and demonstrated a Km value for butyrylthiocholine of 106+/-9 nM. This extract converted the anticancer drug CPT-11 into SN-38, demonstrating that this drug can be activated by enzymes other than carboxylesterases.

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Amitriptyline: a potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase from human serum.

1. The effect of amitriptyline on human serum butyrylcholinesterase (acylcholine acylhydrolase E.C.3.1.1.8) has been investigated. From the Lineweaver-Burk plot and the plot of v versus amitriptyline concentration, it was concluded that amitriptyline inhibition is partially competitive, and the kinetic parameters have been calculated as Ks = 0.11 mM, alpha = 1425 and Ki = 0.01 mM. 2. Because amitriptyline is a partial competitive inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase, acquired deficiency may be seen in patients treated with amitriptyline and may cause complications in operations.

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