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A Novel Method of Capturing Fluorescence in Clinical Dentistry.

A fully integrated esthetic restoration should emit levels of fluorescence similar to that of natural dentition. Also, dental practitioners should be able to monitor this property in their routine clinical setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a removable filter for a macro flash illumination set-up required for the digital photographic recording of the fluorescence emission of human teeth and dental restorations.

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Light Absorption of Secondary Organic Aerosol: Composition and Contribution of Nitroaromatic Compounds.

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collected during individual chamber experiments conducted with three biogenic and eight aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in the presence of NOX and H2O2. Compared with the SOA generated using the aromatic precursors, biogenic SOA generally exhibits negligible light absorption above 350 nm; the aromatic SOA generated in the presence of NOX shows stronger light absorption than that generated with H2O2. Fifteen nitroaromatic compound (NAC) chemical formulas were identified and quantified in SOA samples. Their contributions to the light absorption of sample extracts were also estimated. On average, the m-cresol/NOX SOA sample has the highest mass contribution from NACs (10.4 ± 6.74%, w/w), followed by naphthalene/NOX (6.41 ± 2.08%) and benzene/NOX (5.81 ± 3.82%) SOA. The average contributions of NACs to total light absorption were at least two times greater than their average mass contributions at 365 and 400 nm, revealing the potential use of chromophoric NACs as brown carbon (BrC) tracers in source apportionment and air quality modeling studies.

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Light absorption by water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric fine particles in the central Tibetan Plateau.

Brown carbon (BrC) has recently received much attention because of its light absorption features. The chemical compositions, optical properties, and sources of fine aerosol at a high-elevation mountain observatory (4730 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau were measured between 31 May and 1 July 2015. A low flow-rate sampler was used to collect 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) filter samples. Water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and light absorption by water-soluble BrC were determined for 26 filter samples. The mean (± 1σ) OC and WSOC concentrations were 0.76 ± 0.43 and 0.39 ± 0.15 μgC/m3, respectively, and the mean WSOC/OC mass ratio was 0.59 ± 0.22. The OC and WSOC concentrations were relatively higher (0.59-1.80 and 0.33-0.83 μgC/m3, respectively) during the pre-monsoon period (2-13 June) and were relatively lower (0.27-0.77 and 0.12-0.50 μgC/m3, respectively) during the monsoon period (14 June to 1 July), probably because of wet scavenging of aerosols during long-range transport and the presence of cleaner marine air masses during the monsoon period. The absorption spectra of PM2.5 water extracts smoothly increase from visible range to ultraviolet range. The absorption Ångström exponent, which describes the wavelength dependence of water-soluble BrC, was 2.74-10.61 (mean 6.19 ± 1.70), and its value was similar in the pre-monsoon period (6.57 ± 0.56) to that in the monsoon period (5.91 ± 2.14). The water-soluble BrC mass absorption efficiency, 0.38 ± 0.16 m2/(g C), was much lower than those observed in most urban areas but similar to those in other remote sites. Absorption coefficient at 365 nm, typically used as a proxy for water-soluble BrC, correlated well with the WSOC concentration (R 2  = 0.57), K+ concentration (R 2  = 0.75), and organic aerosol biomass burning markers characterized by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (C2H4O2+ + C3H5O2+, R 2  = 0.60). It can be inferred that biomass burning was an important source of water-soluble BrC in the study area combined with air mass back trajectory analysis using the NOAA HYSPLIT as well as MODIS data of fire dots and aerosol optical depths. The water-soluble BrC to BC light absorption (at 365 nm) coefficient ratios were 9-27%.

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Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis.

Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

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Tailoring Mechanically Robust Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) Nanofiber/nets for Ultrathin High-Efficiency Air Filter.

Effective promotion of air filtration applications proposed for fibers requires their real nanoscale diameter, optimized pore structure, and high service strength; however, creating such filter medium has proved to be a tremendous challenge. This study first establishes a strategy to design and fabricate novel poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) nanofiber/nets (PMIA NF/N) air filter via electrospinning/netting. Our strategy results in generation of a bimodal structure including a scaffold of nanofibers and abundant two-dimensional ultrathin (~20 nm) nanonets to synchronously construct PMIA filters by combining solution optimization, humidity regulation, and additive inspiration. Benefiting from the structural features including the true nanoscale diameter, small pore size, high porosity, and nets bonding contributed by the widely distributed nanonets, our PMIA NF/N filter exhibits the integrated properties of superlight weight (0.365 g m-2), ultrathin thickness (~0.5 μm), and high tensile strength (72.8 MPa) for effective air filtration, achieving the ultra-low penetration air filter level of 99.999% and low pressure drop of 92 Pa for 300-500 nm particles by sieving mechanism. The successful synthesis of PMIA NF/N would not only provide a promising medium for particle filtration, but also develop a versatile platform for exploring the application of nanonets in structural enhancement, separation and purification.

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Rate of riboflavin diffusion from intrastromal channels before corneal crosslinking.

To determine the diffusion of riboflavin from intrastromal channels through the effective diffusion coefficients compared with traditional axial diffusion with epithelium on or off.

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Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly SMCC Plus™ *Enhanced wa Riboflavin galactoside, C Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Riboflavin 5’ phosphate

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Evaluation of dual-wavelength excitation autofluorescence imaging of colorectal tumours with a high-sensitivity CMOS imager: a cross-sectional study.

It is important to devise efficient and easy methods of detecting colorectal tumours to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer. Dual-wavelength excitation autofluorescence intensity can be used to visualize colorectal tumours. Therefore, we evaluated dual-wavelength excitation autofluorescence images of colorectal tumours obtained with a newly developed, high-sensitivity complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imager.

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Advantages of fluorescence-guided laparoscopic surgery of pancreatic cancer labeled with fluorescent anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies in an orthotopic mouse model.

Our laboratory has previously developed fluorescence-guided surgery of pancreatic and other cancers in orthotopic mouse models. Laparoscopic surgery is being used more extensively in surgical oncology. This report describes the efficacy of laparoscopic fluorescence-guided surgery of pancreatic cancer in an orthotopic mouse model.

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Spectral sensitivity of the ctenid spider Cupiennius salei.

The spectral sensitivity of adult male Cupiennius salei Keys, a nocturnal hunting spider, was studied in a behavioural test. As known from earlier behavioural tests, C. salei will walk towards a black target presented in front of a white background. In this study, a black target (size 42×70 cm) was presented in a white arena illuminated by monochromatic light in the range 365-695 nm using 19 monochromatic filters (half-width in the range 6-10 nm). In the first trial, the transmission of the optical filters was between 40% and 80%. In the second trial, the transmission was reduced to 5% using a neutral density filter. At the high intensity, the spiders showed a spectral sensitivity in the range 380-670 nm. In the second trial, the animals only showed directed walks if the illumination was in the range 449-599 nm, indicating a lower sensitivity at the margins of the spectral sensitivity. In previous intracellular recordings, the measured spectral sensitivity was between 320 and 620 nm. Interestingly, these results do not completely match the behaviourally tested spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors, where the sensitivity range is shifted to longer wavelengths. In order to investigate the molecular background of spectral sensitivity, we searched for opsin genes in C. salei. We found three visual opsins that correspond to UV and middle to long wavelength sensitive opsins as described for jumping spiders.

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Sources, composition and absorption Ångström exponent of light-absorbing organic components in aerosol extracts from the Los Angeles Basin.

We investigate the sources, chemical composition, and spectral properties of light-absorbing organic aerosol extracts (i.e., brown carbon, or BrC) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin during the CalNex-2010 field campaign. Light absorption of PM2.5 water-soluble components at 365 nm (Abs365), used as a proxy for water-soluble BrC, was well correlated with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) (r(2) = 0.55-0.65), indicating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from anthropogenic emissions was the major source of water-soluble BrC in this region. Normalizing Abs365 to WSOC mass yielded an average solution mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) of 0.71 m(2) g(-1) C. Detailed chemical speciation of filter extracts identified eight nitro-aromatic compounds that were correlated with Abs365. These compounds accounted for ∼4% of the overall water-soluble BrC absorption. Methanol-extracted BrC in LA was approximately 3 and 21 times higher than water-soluble BrC at 365 and 532 nm, respectively, and had a MAE365 of 1.58 m(2) g(-1) C (Abs365 normalized to organic carbon mass). The water-insoluble BrC was strongly correlated with ambient elemental carbon concentration, suggesting similar sources. Absorption Ångström exponent (Å(a)) (fitted between 300 and 600 nm wavelengths) was 3.2 (±1.2) for the PILS water-soluble BrC measurement, compared to 4.8 (±0.5) and 7.6 (±0.5) for methanol- and water-soluble BrC from filter extracts, respectively. These results show that fine particle BrC was prevalent in the LA basin during CalNex, yet many of its properties and potential impacts remain unknown.

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